Cancer Translational Medicine

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis | Open Access

Vol.5 (2021) | Issue-1 | Page No: 1-10


Cytochrome P450 2C19 Polymorphisms are Associated with a High Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Asian Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Xuehan Gao1, Zhihong Qian2, Guige Wang1, Lei Liu1, Jiaqi Zhang1, Ke Zhao1, Mengxin Zhou1, Shanqing Li1*


1. Department of Thoracic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

2. Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

* Corresponding Author 

Address for correspondence: Shanqing Li, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. E-mail: Tel: 86-69156037.

Important Dates  

Date of Submission:   27-Jul-2021

Date of Acceptance:   17-Aug-2021

Date of Publication:   23-Dec-2021


This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk in Asian populations. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) databases for the relevant studies published till July 2021. A random/fixed-effects model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate the associations, considering multiple genetic models. Study subjects were classified into three groups according to metabolizer phenotypes: (i) extensive metabolizers (EMs: *1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*3); (ii) intermediate metabolizers (IMs: *1/*2, *1/*3) and (iii) poor metabolizers (PMs: *2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3). Eight studies with 1955 cases and 2754 controls were ultimately included which showed that individuals carrying the “A” allele of CYP2C19*2 G636A and AA genotype of CYP2C19*3 G636A were significantly associated with an increased ESCC risk (CYP2C19*2 A vs. G: OR = 1.823, 95% CI = 1.616-2.056; CYP2C19*3 AA vs. AG + GG: OR = 2.992, 95% CI = 1.122-7.981). The analysis of metabolizer phenotypes revealed that the PMs and IMs were associated with higher risk of developing ESCC, as compared to EMs (IMs vs. EMs: OR = 1.673, 95% CI = 1.281-2.186; PMs vs. EMs: OR = 2.605, 95% CI = 1.945-3.489); and PMs showed a stronger correlation. In conclusion our meta-analysis revealed that “A” allele (AA+AG) of CYP2C19*2 and AA genotype of CYP2C19*3 polymorphism are significantly associated with ESCC risk. In metabolizer phenotypes, PMs and IMs are associated with an increased risk of ESCC in Asian populations.


Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is one of the most aggressive cancers, with high mortality and low 5 years survival rate ranging from 4-40%.[1] According to GLOBOCAN 2018, EC is the ninth most common cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer related death worldwide, with about 572,034 new cases and 508,584 deaths each year.[2] There are clear geographic variations of EC in both incidence and histological types. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) and esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) are the two main histological types. EADC is more prevalent in western developed countries; ESCC is more common in Eastern Asia, Central Asia and Southern Africa which are called “the esophageal cancer belt”, where nearly 90% of EC are ESCC.[1],[3] As early symptoms of ESCC may be subtle and nonspecific, most ESCC patients gets diagnosed at the advanced stage, leading to a poor prognosis. Hence, it is essential to understand the pathogenesis and risk factors of ESCC.

Several exposures were related to the process of ESCC, including tobacco smoking, hot food and beverages, lack of vegetables and fruits, and HPV infection.[4] However, more evidences indicated that genetic predisposition, especially single-nucleotide polymorphisms, plays an important role in the development and progression of ESCC.[5] As a member of cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, CYP2C19, also known as S-mephenytoin hydroxylase, is an important phase I metabolic enzyme.[6] Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is located on chromosome 10q24 and consists of 490 amine acids.[7],[8] There are at least 14 mutants and 18 alleles in CYP2C19 gene. CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 are the two commonest mutations, causing 99% of the people in Eastern countries to have poor metabolism.[9],[10],[11] The mechanism of CYP2C19*2 mutation is a 681 substitution of guanine to adenine (G>A) in the exon 5, which leads to a 40 base pair fragment containing a Small restriction endonuclease site to be lost in the initial segment of exon 5 during transcription, causing an inactive enzyme. The CYP2C19*3 polymorphism is a 636 substitution of guanine to adenine (G>A) in the exon 4, changing the codon of tryptophan to a stop codon, which lead to a premature termination of protein synthesis and a lack of connective zone of the substrate and the hemochrome.[12] According to metabolic capacity, CYP2C19 can be divided into three phenotypes: extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and poor metabolizers (PMs). Individuals with homozygous are EMs (*1/*1), who have efficient enzyme to metabolize CYP2C19 substrates.[13] Individuals with heterozygous are IMs (*1/*2, *1/*3), who have intermediate enzyme to metabolize CYP2C19 substrates. Individuals with mutant CYP2C19 alleles are PMs (*2/*2, *3/*3 or *2/*3), who have a reduced capacity to metabolize CYP2C19 substrates.[14] This study intended to investigate the association of gene polymorphisms and metabolizer phenotypes of CYP2C19 with the risk of ESCC in Asian populations.


Literature Search and Selection Criteria

We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) databases. The search covered all publications before July 2021. The used search terms included: “esophageal cancer” or “esophageal squamous cell carcinoma” or “ESCC” or “esophageal carcinoma” and “polymorphisms” or “SNP” or “variation” or “genetic” and “CYP2C19” or "cytochrome P450 2C19” or “CYP 2C19” or “Cytochrome P2C19” or “rs4244285” or “rs4986893”. References from retrieved articles were searched manually for additional studies.[15]

Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria

To be included in this analysis, the studies had to meet the following inclusion criteria: (1) case–control or retrospective cohort studies that evaluated the association between CYP2C19 polymorphisms and ESCC risk, (2) patients with pathologically or histologically confirmed diagnosis of ESCC, (3) independent genotype information of CYP2C19*1, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 polymorphisms, and (4) sufficient data that could evaluate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval.

In addition, the following exclusion criteria were considered: (1) Lack of sufficient data to extract the necessary information; (2) EADC studies or samples mixed with EADC, making it impossible to extract sufficient information, (3) Studies about other CYP2C19 genotypes (ie, CYP2C19*17),[16] and (4) Reviews, meta-analyses, case reports, in vitro cell line studies, and animal experiment studies.

For each study, general characteristics including authors, year of publication, ethnicity, sample size, genotype, and allele frequencies were collected (Figure 1).

[ArticleFigure 35]

Statistical Analysis

In this study, a detailed meta-analysis was performed to reveal the association between CYP2C19*1 (G/G), CYP2C19*2 (G681A), CYP2C19*3 (G636A) polymorphisms and ESCC risk. Subgroup and metabolizer phenotypes analyses were performed on the original data to explore the potential heterogeneity among studies. Associations of CYP2C19*2 and *3 gene polymorphisms with ESCC risk were estimated by five contrasts; dominant genetic model, recessive genetic model, allele genetic mode, homozygous genetic model and heterozygote genetic model.

A formal Q statistical test, as well as I2, was used to judge the heterogeneity among studies.  P < 0.10 or I2 > 50% was considered to be a fixed-effect model; otherwise, a random-effect model was conducted.[17] Depending on the heterogeneity results, the pooled ORs with 95%CIs were calculated in a fixed-effect or random-effect model to evaluate the association of CYP2C19 polymorphisms with ESCC risk. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to validate the stability of results by sequential omission of each study. Publication bias was evaluated by both Egger’s regression test and Begg’s adjusted rank correlation test of funnel plot. All tests in this meta-analysis were performed using STATA version 11.0 software (STATA Corporation, College Station, TX, USA).


A total of 320 studies were identified from the database search. After carefully screening titles and/or abstracts, 281 studies were excluded. Then, 31 studies were excluded based on the exclusion criteria. Finally, 8 studies were included in this meta-analysis (Figure 1). Among the 8 studies, data were available from 6 studies on the CYP2C19*2 genotype (970 cases and 1415 controls) and 6 studies on the CYP2C19*3 genotype (757 cases and 1164 controls). The information and characteristics of the included 8 studies are listed in Table 1.

[ArticleTable 41]

The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). It is designed to assess studies in three components: the selection of the study groups (0–4 points), the comparability of the groups (0–2 points) and determination of either the exposure or the outcome of interest (0–3 points).[18] A perfect NOS score is 9. In this meta-analysis, two studies scored 9;[19],[20] four studies scored 8;[21],[22],[23],[24] two studies scored 7.[25],[26]

CYP2C19*2 (G681A) Polymorphism and ESCC Risk

A meta-analysis of CYP2C19*2 polymorphism and ESCC risk was conducted in all genetic models, which enrolled six studies with 2385 subjects. The detailed results are shown in Table 2. The pooled meta-analysis showed that compared to controls, an increased risk of ESCC was observed in all genetic models: dominant model, AA + AG vs. GG (OR = 2.406, 95% CI = 2.013–2.876) (Figure 2); recessive model, AA vs. AG + GG (OR = 1.934, 95% CI = 1.533–2.439); allele model, A vs. G (OR = 1.823, 95% CI = 1.616-2.056); homozygous model, AA vs. GG (OR = 4.467, 95% CI = 3.320–6.011); and heterozygous model, GA vs. GG (OR = 1.309, 95% CI = 1.073–1.596). According to the heterogeneity study, three genetic models (allele model: I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.694; recessive model: I2 = 23.2%, P = 0.260; dominant model: I2 = 30.3%, P = 0.208) used the fixed-effect model and two genetic models (heterozygous model: I2 = 92.2%, P = 0.000; homozygous model: I2 = 97.2%, P = 0.000) used random-effect model.

[ArticleFigure 36]


[ArticleTable 42]

CYP2C19*3 (G636A) Polymorphism and ESCC Risk

Six studies including 757 cases and 1164 controls described the association between the CYP2C19*3 polymorphism and ESCC risk. The pooled meta-analysis showed that there was a significant association between AA genotype of CYP2C19*3 polymorphism and ESCC risk under (AA vs. AG + GG: OR =2.992, 95% CI = 1.122-7.981) (Figure 3) and homozygous model (AA vs. GG: OR =2.889, 95% CI = 1.073-7.776); but not in dominant, heterozygous and allele models (Table 2). The number of CYP2C19*3 AA genotype was 0 in 2 studies. Four studies, including 545 cases and 694 controls, were included and assessed for the recessive and homozygous models finally.[27] Heterogeneity assessment showed significant inter-study variation in three genetic models (dominant model: I2 = 69.3%, P = 0.006; heterozygous model: I2 = 85.1%, P = 0.000; allele model: I2 = 70.7%, P = 0.004) with random-effect model; and no variation in two genetic models (recessive model: I2 = 49.9%, P = 0.112; homozygous model: I2 = 48.0%, P = 0.123) (Table 2).

[ArticleFigure 37]

Metabolizer Phenotypes and ESCC Risk

Based on metabolizer phenotype, individuals including 1955 cases and 2602 controls were divided into three groups: EMs (*1/*1); IMs (*1/*2, *1/*3); and PMs (*2/*2, *3/*3 and *2/*3). As shown in Table 3, the results of the meta-analysis showed that there were significant differences in the risk of ESCC in the following comparisons: between IMs group and EMs group (OR = 1.673, 95% CI = 1.281-2.186), between PMs group and EMs group (OR = 2.605, 95% CI = 1.945-3.489), between PMs group and IMs group (OR = 1.685, 95% CI = 1.154-2.459), between PMs group and EMs group + IMs group (OR = 2.220, 95% CI = 1.705-2.891) (Figure 4). Heterogeneity analysis showed significant inter-study variation in two comparisons (IMs vs. EMs: I2 = 56.4%, P = 0.032; PMs vs. IMs + EMs: I2 = 52.4%, P = 0.161).

[ArticleFigure 38]


[ArticleTable 43]

Publication Bias

Figure 5A and 5B showed the funnel plots for association between CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 polymorphisms and ESCC risk, which reveal no visually significant publication bias. The P-values for both Begg’s and Egger’s tests (CYP2C19*2: PBegg = 0.452 and PEgger = 0.406; CYP2C19*3: PBegg = 1.000 and PEgger = 0.822) indicated no publication bias, respectively. Fig 5C shows the funnel plots for the association between the metabolizer phenotypes and ESCC risk. No publication bias was found in IMs and EMs group (PBegg = 1.000, PEgger = 0.760). However, three groups (PMs and EMs: PBegg = 0.368, PEgger = 0.053; PMs and IMs: PBegg = 0.368, PEgger = 0.075; PMs and EMs + IMs: PBegg = 0.368, PEgger = 0.083) showed significant publication bias.

[ArticleFigure 39]

Sensitivity Analysis

The sensitivity analysis was carried out by repeating the analysis after sequentially omitting each study to investigate the causes of heterogeneity. As a result, no significant effect was shown in ORs of CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 genotypes and metabolizer phenotypes (Figure 6).

[ArticleFigure 40]


Previous studies regarding the association between CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms and the risk of ESCC remain inconsistent and inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the association between CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms and ESCC risk. Among the results, people carrying the CYP2C19*2 gene A allele had a high ESCC risk compared to people carrying the G allele (OR = 1.823, 95% CI = 1.616-2.056). A previous study published in 2004 by Wei et al. found no association between CYP2C19*3 gene polymorphism and ESCC risk,[23] whereas Yun et al. reported in 2012 that CYP2C19*3 gene A allele was significantly more prevalent in ESCC patients.[20] This meta-analysis combined the results of 6 associated studies and found that AA genotype of CYP2C19*3 polymorphism was related to ESCC risk (OR =2.992, 95% CI = 1.122-7.981). CYP2C19*2 G636A and CYP2C19*3 G636A genes have single base mutations, resulting in reduced CYP2C19 enzyme activity and slowed metabolism of the carcinogens, which accumulate in the body and as the expossure time and dose increase, contribute to the susceptibility to ESCC. CYP2C19 can be divided into EMs, IMs and PMs phenotypes by metabolic capacity. The results confirmed that IMs (OR = 1.673, 95% CI = 1.281-2.186) and PMs (OR = 1.685, 95% CI = 1.154-2.459) had a higher risk of ESCC than EMs. Further, PMs were also found to be associated with a higher risk of ESCC than EMs + PMs (OR = 2.220, 95% CI = 1.705-2.891). This meta-analysis suggested that lower the CYP2C19 enzyme activity, higher the ESCC risk.

CYP2C19 is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily which acts on substances from drugs or environment. Previous studies indicated that CYP2C19 may affect the occurrence of tumors by participating both in activation of procarcinogen and detoxification of carcinogens.[28] Wei et al. used the ASA-PCR method to perform CYP2C19 allele analysis on 372 healthy controls and 212 patients with lung cancer, 148 with gastric cancer, 135 with esophageal cancer and 112 with bladder cancer.[23] The results suggested that CYP2C19 PMs had a high incidence of ESCC, lung cancer and stomach cancer. In contrast, PMs had a low incidence of bladder cancer. In 2014, Li et al. conducted a study in Han population and found that individuals with variant genotypes of CYP2C19 (*2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3) have increased risk of getting primary liver cancer.[29] Anna et al. reported a significant association of CYP2C19 deletion allele with triple-negative breast cancer in Finnish population,[30] and Jabir et al. found the association of CYP2C19 polymorphism with breast cancer in Iraqi population,[31] whereas Laith et al. found no association with breast cancer in Japanese people.[32] The above results suggested poor metabolism of CYP2C19 increases the risk of EC, gastric cancer, lung cancer, and liver cancer. On the other hand, CYP2C19 PMs can reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to assess the association between the CYP2C19 polymorphisms and phenotypes with the risk of ESCC in Asian population. But there are some limitations in this study. First, only 8 articles were included in the analysis. Small sample size may affect our results. Second, 3 of the included studies were PhD thesis and only 6 studies were available for each CYP2C19 genotypes analysis, which may affect our statistical power. We conducted a sensitivity analysis and no significant effects were shown. Third, the included populations were mainly restricted to Asian populations (ie, Chinese and Indian).[33] To obtain more accurate conclusions, the inclusion of ethnic groups should be expanded, and subgroup analyses should be performed. We plan to follow up the research and expand the sample size to improve the results in the future.


In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that “A” allele of G636A and AA genotype of CYP2C19*3 G636A polymorphism are significantly associated with the risk of ESCC. In metabolizer phenotypes, PMs and IMs groups may be associated with an increased ESCC risk. The results should be confirmed by analyzing more case–control studies.



CYP2C19: Cytochrome P450 2C19; EC: esophageal carcinoma; ESCC: esophageal squamous cell cancer; EADC: Esophageal adenocarcinoma; EMs: extensive metabolizers; IMs: intermediate metabolizers; PMs: poor metabolizers; CNKI: China National Knowledge Internet; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; NOS: Newcastle-Ottawa scale; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; RFLP: restriction fragment length polymorphism; ASA, allele specific amplification; Ph: P-value of the heterogeneity test.


Not applicable.


XH G designed the study. XH G, GG W, JQ Z, KZ, ZH Q and LL performed the literature search, data collection, statistical analysis and data Interpretation. XH G and SQ L drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



The authors have declared no competing interests.


Not applicable.


All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.




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Quercetin Inhibits the Proliferation and Migration of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma by Targeting the Prognostic-related Gene MMP1 via Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Zhenhua Zu1,2#, Zhongguo Zhu3#, Zhiyu Xia2, Hongrang Chen1*, Yongsheng Li1*

Huge Lung Fibroleiomyomatous Hamartoma in the Pleural Cavity – A Case report

Minghui Liu1#, Xin Li1#, Hongbing Zhang1, Fan Ren1, Ming Dong1, Chunqiu Xia1, Jun Chen1,2*

Increased Expression of IL-17A, IL-6, STAT3, TGF-β, and VEGF: Potential Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer?

Zishen Xiao1, Chengxia Bai1, Teng Zhao1, Jiayu Lin1, Lijuan Yang1, Jian Liu2, Zhenjiang Wang1, Ying Sun3,4, Yanbo Liu1*

Identification of NSD2 as a Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Wei Zhao1#, Xinyu Xiao1#, Yu Gao1,2, Shanshan Liu3, Xiuzhen Zhang1, Changhong Yang1, Qiling Peng1, Ning Jiang2*, Jianwei Wang1*

Quercetin Inhibits Glioma Proliferation by Targeting CDK1 and CCNB1 - Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Huaixu Li1#, Peng Gao1#, Haotian Tian1, Zhenyu Han2, Xingliang Dai1*, Hongwei Cheng1*

Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Yttrium-90 Microspheres in Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Applications and recent advances

Wei Wang1, Dawei Xie1, Bing Li1, Minghao Chen1*

Irreversible Electroporation in Pancreatic Cancer – Applications and recent advances

Yuanyuan Sun1, Qian Li2, Jia Hu2, Yanfang Liu2*, Xiaosong Li2*

Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T‑stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Shengen Yi, Xiongjian Cui, Li Xiong, Xiaofeng Deng, Dongni Pei, Yu Wen, Xiongying Miao

MicroRNAs are Related to Rituximab in Combination with Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone Resistance in Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

Haibo Huang1, Junjiao Gu1, Shuna Yao1, Zhihua Yao1, Yan Zhao1, Qingxin Xia2, Jie Ma2, Ling Mai3, Shujun Yang1, Yanyan Liu1

Comparison of Intra-voxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in the Evaluation of Focal Malignant Liver Masses

Jinrong Qu1, Xiang Li1, Lei Qin2, Lifeng Wang1, Junpeng Luo1, Jianwei Zhang1, Hongkai Zhang1, Jing Li1, Fei Sun3, Shouning Zhang1, Yanle Li1, Cuicui Liu1, Hailiang Li1

Extracting Breathing Signal Using Fourier Transform from Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Jing Cai1,2, Yilin Liu2, Fangfang Yin1,2

Split End Family RNA Binding Proteins: Novel Tumor Suppressors Coupling Transcriptional Regulation with RNA Processing

Hairui Su1, Yanyan Liu2, Xinyang Zhao1

Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

Pengxing  Zhang1, Xiaoling Pang2,3, Yanyang Tu1,4

Associations of Age and Chemotherapy with Late Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Toxicity in a Hypofractionated Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Schedule in Post‑mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients

Mohammad Akram1, Ghufran Nahid1, Shahid Ali Siddiqui1, Ruquiya Afrose2

Monitoring of Disease Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia‑chronic Phase Patients Treated with Indian Generic Veenat (NATCO) Imatinib Mesylate: A Tertiary Care Experience

Khushboo Dewan, Tathagat Chatterjee

Review of Cancer Immunotherapy: Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death‑ligand 1 Antibodies

Tengfei Zhang1,2, Ling Cao1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongli Yue1, Yu Ping1, Hong Li1, Lan Huang1, Yi Zhang1,3,4,5

Systematic Review of MicroRNAs and its Therapeutic Potential in Glioma

Nan Liu1, Yanyang Tu2

The Involvement of p53‑miR‑34a‑CDK4 Signaling During the Development of Cervical Cancer

Huijun Zuo, Jieqi Xiong, Hongwei Chen, Sisun Liu, Qiaoying Gong, Fei Guo

Unusual Clinical Presentation of a Rare Type of Breast Malignancy: A Case Report and a Short Review of Literature

Nadeesha J. Nawarathna1, Navam R. Kumarasinghe1, Palitha Rathnayake2,
Ranjith J. K. Seneviratne1

Sweet’s Syndrome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t (9:22)

Khushboo Dewan, Shailaja Shukla

Analysis of the Correlationship between Prostate Specific Antigen Related Variables and Risk Factor in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma

Daoyuan Wang1, Tiejun Yang2, Yongqiang Zou1, Xinqiang Yang1

Recent Progress in Genetic and Epigenetic Profile of Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Zhengxi He1, Bin Li1,2

Strategies for Management of Spinal Metastases: A Comprehensive Review

Zhantao Deng, Bin Xu, Jiewen Jin, Jianning Zhao, Haidong Xu

Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

Xia Mao, Yanqiong Zhang, Na Lin

Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yupeng Lei1, Hongxia Chen2, Pi Liu1, Xiaodong Zhou1

Expression Characteristics of miR‑10b in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Gang Li, Yunteng Zhao, Jianqi Wang, Haoran Huang, Mengwen Zhang

An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

Zonggao Shi, M. Sharon Stack

Promoter Methylated Tumor Suppressor Genes in Glioma

Yingduan Cheng1, Yanyang Tu2, Pei Liang3

Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

Chenyang Liu1*, Qian Qian2*, Shen Geng1, Wenkui Sun1, Yi Shi1

Functional Perspective and Implications of Gene Expression by Noncoding RNAs

Xiaoshuang Yan1, Huanyu Xu2, Zhonghai Yan3

Expression of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Multiple Myeloma Patients after Treatment with the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib

James Joseph Driscoll

miR‑505 Downregulates 6‑Phosphofructo‑2‑Kinase/ Fructose‑2,6‑Biphosphatase 4 to Promote Cell Death in Glioblastoma

Esther H. Chung, Hongwei Yang, Hongyan Xing, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson

Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosing Bone Tumors

Sonal Mahajan1, Akash Arvind Saoji2, Anil Agrawal1

Histone H2A and H2B Deubiquitinase in Developmental Disease and Cancer

Demeng Chen1, Caifeng Dai2, Yizhou Jiang3

Genetic Characteristics of Glioblastoma: Clinical Implications of Heterogeneity

Qian Li1, Yanyang Tu1,2

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Normal Platelet Count

Khushboo Dewan, Kiran Agarwal

Galanin is a Novel Epigenetic Silenced Functional Tumor Suppressor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Shengkun Sun1*, Axiang Xu1*, Guoqiang Yang1, Yingduan Cheng2


Selenium Dioxide Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells via Regulating Apoptosis-related Let-7a MicroRNA and Proteins

Sisun Liu1, Jieqi Xiong2, Ling Guo3, Min Xiu1,4, Feng He1,4, Yuanlei Lou5, Fei Guo6,7

Low Expression of Polo‑like Kinase 1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Liver Cancer

Weixia Li1, Kunpeng Liu1, Dechen Lin2, Xin Xu2, Haizhen Lu3, Xinyu Bi4, Mingrong Wang2

Extracorporeal Photopheresis for Steroid‑refractory Chronic Graft‑versus‑host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Runzhe Chen1, Baoan Chen1, Peter Dreger2, Michael Schmitt2, Anita Schmitt2

Glucans and Cancer: Historical Perspective

Petr Sima1, Luca Vannucci1, Vaclav Vetvicka2

Implications of Circadian Rhythm Regulation by microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer

Song Wu1, Andrew Fesler2, Jingfang Ju2

BCL2 Family, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, and Beyond

Haiming Dai1, X. Wei Meng2, Scott H. Kaufmann2

Quantum Dot‑based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications

Li Zhou1, Jingzhe Yan2, Lingxia Tong3, Xuezhe Han4, Xuefeng Wu5, Peng Guo6

CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

Lu Huang1, Weiguo Lv2, Xiaofeng Zhao1

Etiological Trends in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Institutional Study

Varsha Salian, Chethana Dinakar, Pushparaja Shetty, Vidya Ajila

Effect of Irinotecan Combined with Cetuximab on Liver Function in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer with Liver Metastases

Yan Liang1, Yang Li2, Xin Li3, Jianfu Zhao4

The Role of Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer: Challenges for Targeted Therapy, Immune Modulating Treatment, Early Detection, and Less Invasive Operations

Khaled Kyle Wong1, Zhirong Qian2, Yi Le3

Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Natural Products

Weidong Li1,2*, Cihui Chen3*, Zheng Liu2, Baojin Hua1

The Potential of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Focus on Breast Cancer

Mahnaz M. Kazi, Trupti I. Trivedi, Toral P. Kobawala, Nandita R. Ghosh

Imaging‑driven Digital Biomarkers

Enrico Capobianco

Target‑Matching Accuracy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer: An Investigation Based on Four‑Dimensional Digital Human Phantom

Jing Cai1,2, Kate Turner2, Xiao Liang2, W. Paul Segars2,3, Chris R. Kelsey1, David Yoo1, Lei Ren1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2

Downregulation of Death‑associated Protein Kinase 3 and Caspase‑3 Correlate to the Progression and Poor Prognosis of Gliomas

Ye Song, Tianshi Que, Hao Long, Xi’an Zhang, Luxiong Fang, Zhiyong Li, Songtao Qi

Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

Ana Paula Cleto Marolla1, Jaques Waisberg2, Gabriela Tognini Saba2, Demétrius Eduardo Germini2, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal1

Melanoma Antigen Gene Family in the Cancer Immunotherapy

Fengyu Zhu1, Yu Liang1, Demeng Chen2, Yang Li1

Combined Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Collision Tumor Variation

Kaijun Huang1, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios1, Wanhua Yang2, Rajeev L. Balmiki3

Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line (Michigan Cancer Foundation‑7)

Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini

Impact of Age on the Biochemical Failure and Androgen Suppression after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men

Nigel P. Murray1,2, Eduardo Reyes1,3, Nelson Orellana1, Cynthia Fuentealba1, Omar Jacob1

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: 35 Years of a Single Institution’s Experience

Rana I. Mahmood1,2, Mohammed Aldehaim1,3, Fazal Hussain4, Tusneem A. Elhassan4,
Zubeir A. Khan5, Muhammad A. Memon6

Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Therapy: A Discussion

Yeling Ouyang1, Xi Chen2, Chunyun Zhang1, Vichitra Bunyamanop1, Jianfeng Guo3

The Progress in Molecular Biomarkers of Gliomas

Jing Qi1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Correlation between Paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 and its Therapeutic Efficacy and Severe Toxicities in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Shuyao Zhang1*, Muyin Sun2*, Yun Yuan3*, Miaojun Wang4*, Yuqi She1*, Li Zhou5, Congzhu Li5, Chen Chen1, Shengqi Zhang4

Identifying Gaps and Relative Opportunities for Discovering Membrane Proteomic Biomarkers of Triple‑negative Breast Cancer as a Translational Priority

Bhooma Venkatraman

The Molecular Mechanism and Regulatory Pathways of Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Wang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems and Three‑dimensional Cell Cultures in Cancer Treatments and Research

Wenjin Shi1, Ding Weng2,3, Wanting Niu2,3

Choline Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TRAIL in the Treatment of Colorectal Tumors and Overcomes TRAIL Resistance

Juan Carlos Lacal1, Ladislav Andera2

MicroRNA Regulating Metabolic Reprogramming in Tumor Cells: New Tumor Markers

Daniel Otero‑Albiol, Blanca Felipe‑Abrio

Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Genome‑wide Perspective

José M. Santos‑Pereira1, Sandra Muñoz‑Galván2

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide+ Metabolism Biomarkers in Malignant Gliomas

Manuel P. Jiménez‑García, Eva M. Verdugo‑Sivianes, Antonio Lucena‑Cacace

Patient-derived Xenografts as Models for Personalized Medicine Research in Cancer

Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero

Genome‑wide Transcriptome Analysis of Prostate Cancer Tissue Identified Overexpression of Specific Members of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus‑K Family

Behnam Sayanjali1,2

Clinical Utility of Interleukin‑18 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Reecha A. Parikh, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Mahnaz M. Kazi, Nandita R. Ghosh

Current and Future Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced Soft‑tissue Sarcoma beyond Anthracyclines and Ifosfamide

Nadia Hindi1,2, Javier Martin‑Broto1,2

The Genomic Organization and Function of IRX1 in Tumorigenesis and Development

Pengxing Zhang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Stem Cell‑based Approach in Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer Management

Yi‑Zhou Jiang1, Demeng Chen2

Mutation Detection with a Liquid Biopsy 96 Mutation Assay in Cancer Patients and Healthy Donors

Aaron Yun Chen, Glenn D. Braunstein, Megan S. Anselmo, Jair A. Jaboni, Fernando Troy Viloria, Julie A. Neidich, Xiang Li, Anja Kammesheidt

The Application of Estrogen Receptor‑1 Mutations’ Detection through Circulating Tumor DNA in Breast Cancer

Binliang Liu, Yalan Yang, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma

Circulating MicroRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs: Liquid Biomarkers in Thoracic Cancers

Pablo Reclusa1, Anna Valentino1, Rafael Sirera1,2, Martin Frederik Dietrich3, Luis Estuardo Raez3, Christian Rolfo1

Exosomes Biology: Function and Clinical Implications in Lung Cancer

Martin Frederik Dietrich1, Christian Rolfo2, Pablo Reclusa2, Marco Giallombardo2, Anna Valentino2, Luis E. Raez1

Circulating Tumor DNA: A Potential Biomarker from Solid Tumors’ Monitor to Anticancer Therapies

Ting Chen1,2, Rongzhang He1,3, Xinglin Hu1,3,4, Weihao Luo1, Zheng Hu1,3, Jia Li1, Lili Duan1, Yali Xie1,2, Wenna Luo1,2, Tan Tan1,2, Di‑Xian Luo1,2

Novel Molecular Multilevel Targeted Antitumor Agents

Poonam Sonawane1, Young A. Choi1, Hetal Pandya2, Denise M. Herpai1, Izabela Fokt3,
Waldemar Priebe3, Waldemar Debinski1

Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Effects and Clinical Relevance

Pei Liang, Michael Gao Jr.

Stemness‑related Markers in Cancer

Wenxiu Zhao1, Yvonne Li2, Xun Zhang1

Autophagy Regulated by miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Resistance

Andrew Fesler1, Hua Liu1, Ning Wu1,2, Fei Liu3, Peixue Ling3, Jingfang Ju1,3

Gastric Metastases Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: A Brief Literature Review

Simona Gurzu1,2,3, Marius Alexandru Beleaua1, Laura Banias2, Ioan Jung1

Possibility of Specific Expression of the Protein Toxins at the Tumor Site with Tumor‑specialized Promoter

Liyuan Zhou1,2, Yujun Li1,2, Changchen Hu3, Binquan Wang1,2

SKI‑178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models

Jeremy A. Hengst1,2, Taryn E. Dick1,2, Arati Sharma1, Kenichiro Doi3, Shailaja Hegde4, Su‑Fern Tan5, Laura M. Geffert1,2, Todd E. Fox5, Arun K. Sharma1, Dhimant Desai1, Shantu Amin1, Mark Kester5, Thomas P. Loughran5, Robert F. Paulson4, David F. Claxton6, Hong‑Gang Wang3, Jong K. Yun1,2

A T‑cell Engager‑armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to Target the Tumor Stroma

Feng Yu1, Bangxing Hong1, Xiao‑Tong Song1,2,3

Real‑world Experience with Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration‑resistant Prostate Cancer

Yasar Ahmed1, Nemer Osman1, Rizwan Sheikh2, Sarah Picardo1, Geoffrey Watson1

Combination of Interleukin‑11Rα Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‑cells and Programmed Death‑1 Blockade as an Approach to Targeting Osteosarcoma Cells In vitro

Hatel Rana Moonat, Gangxiong Huang, Pooja Dhupkar, Keri Schadler, Nancy Gordon,
Eugenie Kleinerman

Efficacy and Safety of Paclitaxel‑based Therapy and Nonpaclitaxel‑based Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

Tongwei Wu, Xiao Yang, Min An, Wenqin Luo, Danxian Cai, Xiaolong Qi

Motion Estimation of the Liver Based on Deformable Image Registration: A Comparison Between Four‑Dimensional‑Computed Tomography and Four‑Dimensional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xiao Liang1, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2, Yilin Liu1, Brian Czito2, Manisha Palta2, Mustafa Bashir3, Jing Cai1,2

A Feasibility Study of Applying Thermal Imaging to Assist Quality Assurance of High‑Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Xiaofeng Zhu1, Yu Lei1, Dandan Zheng1, Sicong Li1, Vivek Verma1, Mutian Zhang1, Qinghui Zhang1, Xiaoli Tang2, Jun Lian2, Sha X. Chang2, Haijun Song3, Sumin Zhou1, Charles A. Enke1

Role of Exosome microRNA in Breast Cancer

Wang Qu, Ma Fei, Binghe Xu

Recent Progress in Technological Improvement and Biomedical Applications of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas System

Yanlan Li1,2*, Zheng Hu1*, Yufang Yin3, Rongzhang He1, Jian Hu1, Weihao Luo1, Jia Li1, Gebo Wen2, Li Xiao1, Kai Li1, Duanfang Liao4, Di-Xian Luo1,5

The Significance of Nuclear Factor‑Kappa B Signaling Pathway in Glioma: A Review

Xiaoshan Xu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Markerless Four‑Dimensional‑Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection‑Phase Sorting Using Prior Knowledge and Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

Lei Zhang1,2, Yawei Zhang2, You Zhang1,2,3, Wendy B. Harris1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,4, Jing Cai1,4,5, Lei Ren1,2

The Producing Capabilities of Interferon‑g and Interleukin‑10 of Spleen Cells in Primary and Metastasized Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells-implanted Mice

Yasuka Azuma1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Toshihiro Inagaki4, Eiichi Chihara2, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Nobuo Kondoh1

“Eating” Cancer Cells by Blocking CD47 Signaling: Cancer Therapy by Targeting the Innate Immune Checkpoint

Yi‑Rong Xiang, Li Liu

Glycosylation is Involved in Malignant Properties of Cancer Cells

Kazunori Hamamura1, Koichi Furukawa2

Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Era of Precision Medicine

Qing‑Hao Zhu1*, Qing‑Chao Shang1*, Zhi‑Hao Hu1*, Yuan Liu2, Bo Li1, Bo Wang1, An‑Hui Wang1

I‑Kappa‑B Kinase‑epsilon Activates Nuclear Factor‑kappa B and STAT5B and Supports Glioblastoma Growth but Amlexanox Shows Little Therapeutic Potential in These Tumors

Nadège Dubois1, Sharon Berendsen2, Aurélie Henry1,2, Minh Nguyen1, Vincent Bours1,
Pierre Alain Robe1,2

Suppressive Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Interferon‑g‑Producing Capability of Spleen Cells was Specifically Enhanced through Humoral Mediator(s) from Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sq‑1979 Cells In Vitro

Toshihiro Inagaki1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Eiichi Chihara4, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Shinichiro Sumitomo5, Nobuo Kondoh1

An Interplay Between MicroRNA and SOX4 in the Regulation of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Progression

Anjali Geethadevi1, Ansul Sharma2, Manish Kumar Sharma3, Deepak Parashar1

MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Prostate Cancer of African‑American and European‑American Men

Ernest K. Amankwah

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Screening Anticancer Agents

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Taoli Sun3, Shengping Zhang1, Hongyan Zhang1

Panobinostat and Its Combination with 3‑Deazaneplanocin‑A Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit In vitro Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in GOS‑3 Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Javier de la Rosa*, Alejandro Urdiciain*, Juan Jesús Aznar‑Morales, Bárbara Meléndez1,
Juan A. Rey2, Miguel A. Idoate3, Javier S. Castresana

Cancer Stem‑Like Cells Have Cisplatin Resistance and miR‑93 Regulate p21 Expression in Breast Cancer

Akiko Sasaki1, Yuko Tsunoda2, Kanji Furuya3, Hideto Oyamada1, Mayumi Tsuji1, Yuko Udaka1, Masahiro Hosonuma1, Haruna Shirako1, Nana Ichimura1, Yuji Kiuchi1

The Contribution of Hexokinase 2 in Glioma

Hui Liu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang3, Yanyang Tu1

The Mechanism of BMI1 in Regulating Cancer Stemness Maintenance, Metastasis, Chemo‑ and Radiation Resistance

Xiaoshan Xu, Zhen Wang, Nan Liu, Pengxing Zhang, Hui Liu, Jing Qi, Yanyang Tu

A Multisource Adaptive Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Technique for Versatile Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lei Zhang1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,3, Brittany Moore1,2, Silu Han1,2, Jing Cai1,2,4

Senescence and Cancer

Sulin Zeng1,2, Wen H. Shen2, Li Liu1

The “Wild”‑type Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Heterogeneity on Molecule Characteristics and Clinical Features

Yanhua Mou1, Quan Wang1, Bin Li1,2

Retreatment with Cabazitaxel in a Long‑Surviving Patient with Castration‑Resistant Prostate Cancer and Visceral Metastasis

Raquel Luque Caro, Carmen Sánchez Toro, Lucia Ochoa Vallejo

Therapy‑Induced Histopathological Changes in Breast Cancers: The Changing Role of Pathology in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Shazima Sheereen1, Flora D. Lobo1, Waseemoddin Patel2, Shamama Sheereen3,
Abhishek Singh Nayyar4, Mubeen Khan5

Glioma Research in the Era of Medical Big Data

Feiyifan Wang1, Christopher J. Pirozzi2, Xuejun Li1

Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Adenomas: Case Report and Literature Review

Jian‑Hong Zhong1,2, Kang Chen1, Bhavesh K. Ahir3, Qi Huang4, Ye Wu4, Cheng‑Cheng Liao1, Rong‑Rong Jia1, Bang‑De Xiang1,2, Le‑Qun Li1,2

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, Role in Cancer, and Novel Drug Target

Antonio Lucena‑Cacace1,2,3, Amancio Carnero1,2

Enhanced Anticancer Effect by Combination of Proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on Bladder Cancer Cells

Michael Zhang, Kelvin Zheng, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno

Molecular Insights Turning Game for Management of Ependymoma: A Review of Literature

Ajay Sasidharan, Rahul Krishnatry

IDH Gene Mutation in Glioma

Leping Liu1, Xuejun Li1,2

Challenges and Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Report and Literature Review

Gerard Cathal Millen1, Karen A. Manias1,2, Andrew C. Peet1,2, Jenny K. Adamski1

Assessing the Feasibility of Using Deformable Registration for Onboard Multimodality‑Based Target Localization in Radiation Therapy

Ge Ren1,2,3, Yawei Zhang1,2, Lei Ren1,2

Research Advancement in the Tumor Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Qing Du1, Xiaoying Ji2, Guangjing Yin3, Dengxian Wei3, Pengcheng Lin1, Yongchang Lu1,
Yugui Li3, Qiaohong Yang4, Shizhu Liu5, Jinliang Ku5, Wenbin Guan6, Yuanzhi Lu7

Novel Insights into the Role of Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Lei Zhang1, Guoyu Qiu2, Xiaohui Xu2, Yufeng Zhou3, Ruiming Chang4

Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Unusual Presenting Symptoms

Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal

The Prognostic Role of Lactate in Patients Who Achieved Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Dongni Ren1, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1,2

Inhibitory Effect of Hyaluronidase‑4 in a Rat Spinal Cord Hemisection Model

Xipeng Wang1,2, Mitsuteru Yokoyama2, Ping Liu3

Research and Development of Anticancer Agents under the Guidance of Biomarkers

Xiaohui Xu1, Guoyu Qiu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Ruling Jia1, Bo Zhao1

Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Mansoor C. Abdulla

Phosphorylation of BRCA1‑Associated Protein 1 as an Important Mechanism in the Evasion of Tumorigenesis: A Perspective

Guru Prasad Sharma1, Anjali Geethadevi2, Jyotsna Mishra3, G. Anupa4, Kapilesh Jadhav5,
K. S. Vikramdeo6, Deepak Parashar2

Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of Biliary‑Pancreatic System

Ge Zengzheng1, Huang-Sheng Ling2, Ming-Feng Li2, Xu Xiaoyan1, Yao Kai1, Xu Tongzhen3,
Ge Zengyu4, Li Zhou5

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Study the Biological Activity of Anticancer Agent

Guoyu Qiu1, Xiaohui Xu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Huan Yang5

Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Breast Tumors

Steven Lehrer1, Peter H. Rheinstein2

OSMCC: An Online Survival Analysis Tool for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai1, Qiang Wang1, Xiaoxiao Sun1, Yifang Dang1, JiaJia Lv1,2, Junfang Xin1, Wan Zhu3, Yongqiang Li1, Xinying Ji1, Xiangqian Guo1

Protective Activity of Selenium against 5‑Fluorouracil‑Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Beauty Tokoni Amgbare

Advances on the Components of Fibrinolytic System in Malignant Tumors

Zengzheng Ge1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Zengyu Ge2, Shaopeng Zhou3, Xiulin Li1, Kai Yao1, Lan Deng4

A Patient with Persistent Foot Swelling after Ankle Sprain: B‑Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mimicking Soft‑tissue Sarcoma

Crystal R. Montgomery‑Goecker1, Andrew A. Martin2, Charles F. Timmons3, Dinesh Rakheja3, Veena Rajaram3, Hung S. Luu3

Coenzyme Q10 and Resveratrol Abrogate Paclitaxel‑Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Loritta Wasini Harris

Progress in Clinical Follow‑up Study of Dendritic Cells Combined with Cytokine‑Induced Killer for Stomach Cancer

Ling Wang1,2, Run Wan1,2, Cong Chen1,2, Ruiliang Su1,2, Yumin Li1,2

Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy as the Initial Manifestation in Carcinoma of Cervix

Priyanka Priyaarshini1, Tapan Kumar Sahoo2

ABO Typing Error Resolution and Transfusion Support in a Case of an Acute Leukemia Patient Showing Loss of Antigen Expression

Debasish Mishra1, Gopal Krushna Ray1, Smita Mahapatra2, Pankaj Parida2

Protein Disulfide Isomerase A3: A Potential Regulatory Factor of Colon Epithelial Cells

Yang Li1, Zhenfan Huang2, Haiping Jiang3

Clinicopathological Association of p16 and its Impact on Outcome of Chemoradiation in Head‑and‑Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Patients in North‑East India

Srigopal Mohanty1, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi2, Nithin Raj Daniel3, Dulasi Raman Ponna4,
Ph. Madhubala Devi5, Laishram Jaichand Singh2

Potential Inhibitor for 2019‑Novel Coronaviruses in Drug Development

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Lei Zhang3, Lingxue Zhuang4, Wutang Jing5, Lupeng Ji6, Guoyu Qiu1

Best‑Match Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Mixed Autoantibodies

Debasish Mishra1, Dibyajyoti Sahoo1, Smita Mahapatra2, Ashutosh Panigrahi3

Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Pheochromocytoma

Nadeema Rafiq1, Tauseef Nabi2, Sajad Ahmad Dar3, Shahnawaz Rasool4

Comparison of Histopathological Grading and Staging of Breast Cancer with p53‑Positive and Transforming Growth Factor‑Beta Receptor 2‑Negative Immunohistochemical Marker Expression Cases

Palash Kumar Mandal1, Anindya Adhikari2, Subir Biswas3, Amita Giri4, Arnab Gupta5,
Arindam Bhattacharya6

Chemical Compositions and Antiproliferative Effect of Essential Oil of Asafoetida on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line and Female Wistar Rats

Seyyed Majid Bagheri1,2, Davood Javidmehr3, Mohammad Ghaffari1, Ehsan Ghoderti‑Shatori4

Cyclooxygenase‑2 Contributes to Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting an Immunosuppressive Environment

Mun Kyoung Kim1, Aidin Iravani2, Matthew K. Topham2,3

Potential role of CircMET as A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Yan Liu1,2,3,4#, Chen Cui1,2,3,4#, Jidong Liu1,2,3,4, Peng Lin1,2,3,4,Kai Liang1,2,3,4, Peng Su5, Xinguo Hou1,2,3,4, Chuan Wang1,2,3,4, Jinbo Liu1,2,3,4, Bo Chen6, Hong Lai1,2,3,4, Yujing Sun1,2,3,4* and Li Chen 1,2,3,4*

Cuproptosis-related Genes in Glioblastoma as Potential Therapeutic Targets

Zhiyu Xia1,2, Haotian Tian1, Lei Shu1,2, Guozhang Tang3, Zhenyu Han4, Yangchun Hu1*, Xingliang Dai1*

Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments by Porous Inorganic Nanocarriers

Jianfeng Xu1,2, Hanwen Zhang1,2, Xiaohui Song1,2, Yangong Zheng3, Qingning Li1,2,4*

Delayed (20 Years) post-surgical Esophageal Metastasis of Breast Cancer - A Case Report

Bowen Hu1#, Lingyu Du2#, Hongya Xie1, Jun Ma1, Yong Yang1*, Jie Tan2*

Subtyping of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Its Clinical Meaning

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai, Zhendong Lu, Fengling Wang, Muhammad Usman Akbar, Saadullah Khattak, Muhammad Badar, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Longxiang Xie, Yongqiang Li, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo

Construction of Glioma Prognosis Model and Exploration of Related Regulatory Mechanism of Model Gene

Suxia Hu, Abdusemer Reyimu, Wubi Zhou, Xiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Xia Chen, Weiqiang Li, Jingjing Dai

ESRP2 as a Non-independent Potential Biomarker-Current Progress in Tumors

Yuting Chen, Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo, Chengkuan Zhao, Shuyao Zhang

Resection of Bladder Tumors at the Ureteral Orifice Using a Hook Plasma Electrode: A Case Report

Jun Li, Ziyong Wang, Qilin Wang

Structural Characterization and Bioactivity for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides

Jinghua Qi1,2,  Hangping Chen3,Huaqing Lin2,4,Hongyuan Chen1,2,5* and Wen Rui2,3,5,6*

The Role of IL-22 in the Prevention of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Liver Injury

Xingli Qi1,2, Huaqing Lin2,3, Wen Rui2,3,4,5 and Hongyuan Chen1,2,3

RBM15 and YTHDF3 as Positive Prognostic Predictors in ESCC: A Bioinformatic Analysis Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)

Yulou Luo1, Lan Chen2, Ximing Qu3, Na Yi3, Jihua Ran4, Yan Chen3,5*

Mining and Analysis of Adverse Drug Reaction Signals Induced by Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Based on the FAERS Database

Xiumin Zhang1,2#, Xinyue Lin1,3#, Siman Su1,3#, Wei He3, Yuying Huang4, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xiaoshan Chen3, Jialin Zhong3, Chong Liu3, Wang Chen3, Chengcheng Xu3, Ping Yang5, Man Zhang5, Yanli Lei5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*

Advancements in Immunotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

Min Jiang1#, Rui Zheng1#, Ling Shao1, Ning Yao2, Zhengmao Lu1*

Tumor Regression after COVID-19 Infection in Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: A Case Report

Qiaoxin Lin1, Bin Liang1, Yangyang Li2, Ling Tian3*, Dianna Gu1*

Mining and Analysis of Adverse Events of BRAF Inhibitors Based on FDA Reporting System

Silan Peng1,2#, Danling Zheng1,3#, Yanli Lei4#, Wang Chen3, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xinyue Lin1, Xiaoshan Chen3, Wei He3, Li Li3, Qiuzhen Zhang5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*

Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Fever, Anemia, Hypoproteinemia: A Rare and Strange Case Report and Literature Review

Zhenghang Li1, Yuxian Wei1*

Construction of Cuproptosis-Related LncRNA Signature as a Prognostic Model Associated with Immune Microenvironment for Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Jiyao Yu1#, Shukai Zhang2#, Qingwen Ran3, Xuemei Li4,5,6*

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