Cancer Translational Medicine

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis | Open Access

Vol.8 (2022) | Issue-1 | Page No: 16-24

DOI: https://doi-ds.org/doilink/03.2022-33862439/A3

Diagnostic Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: A Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Lili Zhou1,2, Hai Yi1*, Dan Chen1, Qian Zhang1, Fangyi Fan1, Ling Qiu1, Nan Zhang1, Yi Su1

Affiliations  

1Department of Hematology, General Hospital of Western Theater Command, People's Liberation Army, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

2The Second Stationed Outpatient Department, General Hospital of Western Theater Command, People's Liberation Army, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

*Corresponding Author: 

Address for correspondence: Prof. Hai Yi, Department of Hematology, General Hospital of Western Theater Command, People's Liberation Army, No. 270 Rongdu Avenue, Jinniu District, Chengdu 610083, Sichuan, China. E-mail: yihaimail@163.com   


Important Dates  

Date of Submission:   02-Nov-2021

Date of Acceptance:   08-Jan-2022

Date of Publication:   29-Mar-2022

ABSTRACT

Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with an unfavorable prognosis. Currently, the diagnosis of PCNSL relies on brain excisional biopsy, which is an invasive procedure that carries the risk of complications such as intracranial hemorrhage and functional impairment. Finding effective biomarkers will help us to diagnose PCNSL faster and safer.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. We will search databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and CNKI. Studies that demonstrated the diagnostic value of certain biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in PCNSL will be included. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) will be calculated for quantitative values. The outcomes are the mean difference in biomarker levels in CSF between PCNSL patients and controls.

Discussion: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we will analyze biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of PCNSL. This research can help us to identify biomarkers with diagnostic value for PCNSL, making the diagnosis of PCNSL easier, faster, and safer.

Systematic review and meta-analyses registration: PROSPERO CRD42020218143.


BACKGROUND

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that tends to occur in older people with a median age of 65 years.[1] The common primary sites are the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, and eyes, without infiltration of other parts. PCNSL can occur in immunocompromised individuals, such as HIV-infected hosts and post organ transplant recipients.[2] In recent years, an increasing number of cases in immunocompetent hosts have been reported.[3] PCNSL is particularly the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype, characterized by constitutive activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway, which is frequently accompanied by myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88) and CD79B mutations.[4] PCNSL is a highly aggressive malignant lymphoma with an unfavorable prognosis.[5] It responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy, and the overall 5-year survival rate is only approximately 33%.[5] Combination chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate, whole-brain radiotherapy, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can benefit PCNSL patients.[6],[7],[8],[9] In recent years, novel targeted therapeutics have emerged as potential treatments for PCNSL.[10] For instance, the Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib significantly improves the prognosis of PCNSL patients, especially for those with MYD88 and CD79B double mutations.[11] The immunomodulator lenalidomide also enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy in PCNSL.[12]

  The clinical manifestations of PCNSL patients are nausea, headache, vomiting, limb weakness, etc.1 Imaging examinations such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can find intracranial space-occupying lesions. Several studies have reported that PCNSL has certain changes in imaging features, such as lesions that are mostly located in the supratentorial area, MRI hypointense on T1-weighted images, isohypointense on T2-weighted images, homogeneous enhancement and restricted diffusion, little associated vasogenic edema, and no central necrosis, which can be distinguished from other tumor types such as glioma.[13] However, brain biopsy is still the gold standard for diagnosis. Nevertheless, brain biopsy is an invasive procedure that carries the risk of complications such as intracranial hemorrhage and functional impairment.[14],[15] The procedure may also be challenging because of the difficulty in reaching deep tumor sites.[16] Exploring a high-efficiency and less invasive diagnostic strategy is an urgent need for the diagnosis of PCNSL.

  Recently, several studies have shown that certain diagnostic biomarkers could be detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood in PCNSL patients,[17],[18],[19] providing ideas for the diagnosis of PCNSL without brain excisional biopsy. These biomarkers include tumor cells, tumor DNAs, and proteins. CSF biomarkers have better sensitivity and auxiliary diagnostic value for PCNSL than blood biomarkers.[20] Because lumbar puncture is routine and less traumatic in patients with intracranial lesions, CSF biomarkers are potentially the most suitable biomarkers for PCNSL diagnosis.


AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of frequently reported biomarkers in CSF in PCNSL patients, with an objective to identify promising biomarkers that will help us to diagnose PCNSL faster and safer.


METHODS

This “systematic review and meta-analysis” was registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42020218143) on the 29th of November 2020. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines [Additional file 1].[21]

Eligibility criteria

Type of studies

This review will include all types of studies with human subjects that evaluate the diagnostic value of biomarkers in CSF in PCNSL. Case reports, letters, animal studies, and laboratory studies will be excluded.

Type of participants

Patients with PCNSL diagnosis according to histopathology will be included, regardless of sex, age, race, ethnicity, involvement site, host immune status, and severity of PCNSL. Patients with secondary central nervous system lymphoma will be excluded.

Type of index test

The results of the index tests that use CSF-based tumor cells, tumor DNA, and proteins in the detection of PCNSL will be considered for analysis.

Types of intervention

Several cytokines and gene mutations in CSF are reported to be associated with the diagnosis of PCNSL. The concentration or properties of the following biomarkers in the CSF of PCNSL patients and controls will be evaluated in this study.

Biomarkers: MiR-21, miR-19, miR-30c, miR-92a, transmembrane activator, and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (Tim-1), neopterin (Npt), a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL), B cell activating factor (BAFF), CD79B, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88), circulating U2 small nuclear RNA fragments (RNU2-1f), soluble CD27, osteopontin (OPN), antithrombin III (AT III).

Types of outcome measures

Diagnostic value of the biomarkers in CSF in the diagnosis of PCNSL will be measured by calculating the mean difference in biomarker levels between PCNSL patients and controls.

Data sources and search strategy

A literature search will be performed in multiple electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and CNKI, from their inception to October 30, 2020. There are no language restrictions. The search strategy of Medline is shown in Additional file 2. Other databases will be used by a similar strategy.

Data collection and analysis

Study selection

Two reviewers (FF and LQ) will evaluate the titles and abstracts by searching information sources independently. The full text of potential articles will be assessed by both reviewers if the eligibility of an article cannot be decided by only screening the title and abstract. Any disagreements regarding the eligibility of studies will be adjudicated by a discussion with a third reviewer (YS).

Data extraction

Two reviewers (HY and FF) will extract the data from each included study independently by using a standardized form. The items extracted from the studies will be the first author, study title, publication year, regions, study design, sample size and controls, detection methods, biomarkers and levels, diagnostic value, value type, sensitivity, and specificity. If there will be any missing data, then we will contact the authors for additional information. Any disagreements will be resolved through discussion, and the standardized forms will be checked by NZ.

Risk of bias in individual studies

The quality of the included studies and risk of bias will be assessed independently by two reviewers (HY and FF) using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) criteria.[22] The quality assessment evaluates the risk of bias and concerns regarding the applicability of all included studies. The results of the quality assessment and studies with a high, low, or unclear risk of bias will be displayed in a table.

Data synthesis

Statistical analysis

The mean and standard deviation of biomarker levels from individual studies will be collected to calculate the standardized mean difference (SMD) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity will be evaluated by Cochran’s Q test and inconsistency index value (I²). If there is no heterogeneity (I2<40%, p>0.05), we will use a fixed-effects model for the meta-analysis; otherwise, the random-effects model will be chosen.[23] All statistical analyses will be conducted using STATA version 15.0.

Subgroup analysis

To further understand the heterogeneity, we will perform subgroup analyses as follows:

1. The type of biomarkers (tumor cells, tumor DNA, and proteins).

2. Detection methods (Droplet Digital PCR, Next Generation Sequencing, ELISA).

Sensitivity analysis

To determine the stability of the study, we will perform a sensitivity analysis. Studies with a high risk of bias on overall effects will be excluded.

Assessment of reporting bias

Funnel plots, as well as associated regression tests, will be used to test publication bias.

Confidence in cumulative evidence

The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) will be used to assess the strength of evidence.


DISCUSSION

We will evaluate the role of all the reported biomarkers in CSF in patients with PCNSL in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Additionally, we intend to clarify the optimal concentrations of certain biomarkers for diagnosis. By subgroup analyses, we will compare the different types of biomarkers and the different detection methods for the diagnosis of PCNSL. We hope the findings of this study will help us recognize the significance of liquid biopsy of CSF in PCNSL patients, making the diagnosis of PCNSL easier, faster, and safer and improving the quality of life.

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

PCNSL: Primary central nervous system lymphoma

CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid

ABC: Activated B cell-like

NF-κB: Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

BTK: Bruton tyrosine kinase

CT: computed tomography

MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging

PRISMA-P: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols

QUADAS-2: Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid

PCR: Polymerase chain reaction

ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

 

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis, and the results are based on previously published evidence, and hence is exempted from the need for approval from the ethics committee

 

FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND SPONSORSHIP

This work is supported by the Science and Technology Project of Sichuan to Hai Yi (No. 2018JY0583), Scientific Research Project of Sichuan Health Commission to Hai Yi (No. 18PJ358), and Youth Innovation Project of Sichuan Medical Research to Hai Yi (No. Q17004). The sponsors are not involved in design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, or writing the manuscript.

 

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Grommes C, Younes A. Ibrutinib in PCNSL: The Curious Cases of Clinical Responses and Aspergillosis. Cancer Cell 2017;31(6):731-3

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Ghesquieres H, Chevrier M, Laadhari M, Chinot O, Choquet S, Molucon-Chabrot C, Beauchesne P, Gressin R, Morschhauser F, Schmitt A, Gyan E, Hoang-Xuan K, Nicolas-Virelizier E, Cassoux N, Touitou V, Garff-Tavernier ML, Savignoni A, Turbiez I, Soumelis V, Houillier C, Soussain C. Lenalidomide in combination with intravenous rituximab (REVRI) in relapsed/refractory primary CNS lymphoma or primary intraocular lymphoma: a multicenter prospective 'proof of concept' phase II study of the French Oculo-Cerebral lymphoma (LOC) Network and the Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA). Ann Oncol 2019;30(4):621-8

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Cheng G, Zhang J. Imaging features (CT, MRI, MRS, and PET/CT) of primary central nervous system lymphoma in immunocompetent patients. Neurol Sci 2019;40(3):535-42

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ADDITIONAL FILES

Additional File 1:

Additional file 1.
PRISMA-P 2015 Checklist.

 

Additional file 2.

Search strategy applied in MEDLINE database

MiR-21, miR-19, miR-30c, miR-92a

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND (MiR-21 OR miR-19 OR miR-30c OR miR-92a)

TACI

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor" OR TACI)

BCMA

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("B cell maturation antigen" OR BCMA)

sIL-2R

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("soluble IL-2 receptor" OR sIL-2R)

IL-6, IL-10

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("interleukin-6" OR IL-6 OR "interleukin-10" OR IL-10)

β2-MG

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("β2-microglobulin" OR β2-MG)

CXCL13

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13" OR CXCL13)

Tim-1

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1" OR Tim-1)

Npt

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("neopterin" OR Npt)

APRIL

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("a proliferation inducing ligand" OR APRIL)

BAFF

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("B cell activating factor" OR BAFF)

CD79B

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("cluster of differentiation 79B" OR CD79B)

MYD88

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("myeloid differentiation factor 88" OR MYD88)

RNU2-1f

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("circulating U2 small nuclear RNA fragments" OR RNU2-1f)

Soluble CD27

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("soluble cluster of differentiation 27" OR "soluble CD27")

OPN

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("osteopontin" OR OPN)

AT III

Primary central nervous system lymphoma OR PCNSL AND (("biological"[All Fields] AND "markers"[All Fields]) OR "biomarker"[All Fields]) OR CSF[All Fields] OR cerebrospinal[All Fields]) AND ("Antithrombin III" OR AT III)


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Jinrong Qu1, Xiang Li1, Lei Qin2, Lifeng Wang1, Junpeng Luo1, Jianwei Zhang1, Hongkai Zhang1, Jing Li1, Fei Sun3, Shouning Zhang1, Yanle Li1, Cuicui Liu1, Hailiang Li1


Extracting Breathing Signal Using Fourier Transform from Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Jing Cai1,2, Yilin Liu2, Fangfang Yin1,2


Split End Family RNA Binding Proteins: Novel Tumor Suppressors Coupling Transcriptional Regulation with RNA Processing

Hairui Su1, Yanyan Liu2, Xinyang Zhao1


Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

Pengxing  Zhang1, Xiaoling Pang2,3, Yanyang Tu1,4


Associations of Age and Chemotherapy with Late Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Toxicity in a Hypofractionated Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Schedule in Post‑mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients

Mohammad Akram1, Ghufran Nahid1, Shahid Ali Siddiqui1, Ruquiya Afrose2


Monitoring of Disease Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia‑chronic Phase Patients Treated with Indian Generic Veenat (NATCO) Imatinib Mesylate: A Tertiary Care Experience

Khushboo Dewan, Tathagat Chatterjee


Review of Cancer Immunotherapy: Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death‑ligand 1 Antibodies

Tengfei Zhang1,2, Ling Cao1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongli Yue1, Yu Ping1, Hong Li1, Lan Huang1, Yi Zhang1,3,4,5


Systematic Review of MicroRNAs and its Therapeutic Potential in Glioma

Nan Liu1, Yanyang Tu2


The Involvement of p53‑miR‑34a‑CDK4 Signaling During the Development of Cervical Cancer

Huijun Zuo, Jieqi Xiong, Hongwei Chen, Sisun Liu, Qiaoying Gong, Fei Guo


Unusual Clinical Presentation of a Rare Type of Breast Malignancy: A Case Report and a Short Review of Literature

Nadeesha J. Nawarathna1, Navam R. Kumarasinghe1, Palitha Rathnayake2,
Ranjith J. K. Seneviratne1


Sweet’s Syndrome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t (9:22)

Khushboo Dewan, Shailaja Shukla


Analysis of the Correlationship between Prostate Specific Antigen Related Variables and Risk Factor in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma

Daoyuan Wang1, Tiejun Yang2, Yongqiang Zou1, Xinqiang Yang1


Recent Progress in Genetic and Epigenetic Profile of Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Zhengxi He1, Bin Li1,2


Strategies for Management of Spinal Metastases: A Comprehensive Review

Zhantao Deng, Bin Xu, Jiewen Jin, Jianning Zhao, Haidong Xu


Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

Xia Mao, Yanqiong Zhang, Na Lin


Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yupeng Lei1, Hongxia Chen2, Pi Liu1, Xiaodong Zhou1


Expression Characteristics of miR‑10b in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Gang Li, Yunteng Zhao, Jianqi Wang, Haoran Huang, Mengwen Zhang


An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

Zonggao Shi, M. Sharon Stack


Promoter Methylated Tumor Suppressor Genes in Glioma

Yingduan Cheng1, Yanyang Tu2, Pei Liang3


Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

Chenyang Liu1*, Qian Qian2*, Shen Geng1, Wenkui Sun1, Yi Shi1


Functional Perspective and Implications of Gene Expression by Noncoding RNAs

Xiaoshuang Yan1, Huanyu Xu2, Zhonghai Yan3


Expression of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Multiple Myeloma Patients after Treatment with the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib

James Joseph Driscoll


miR‑505 Downregulates 6‑Phosphofructo‑2‑Kinase/ Fructose‑2,6‑Biphosphatase 4 to Promote Cell Death in Glioblastoma

Esther H. Chung, Hongwei Yang, Hongyan Xing, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson


Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosing Bone Tumors

Sonal Mahajan1, Akash Arvind Saoji2, Anil Agrawal1


Histone H2A and H2B Deubiquitinase in Developmental Disease and Cancer

Demeng Chen1, Caifeng Dai2, Yizhou Jiang3


Genetic Characteristics of Glioblastoma: Clinical Implications of Heterogeneity

Qian Li1, Yanyang Tu1,2


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Normal Platelet Count

Khushboo Dewan, Kiran Agarwal


Galanin is a Novel Epigenetic Silenced Functional Tumor Suppressor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Shengkun Sun1*, Axiang Xu1*, Guoqiang Yang1, Yingduan Cheng2

 


Selenium Dioxide Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells via Regulating Apoptosis-related Let-7a MicroRNA and Proteins

Sisun Liu1, Jieqi Xiong2, Ling Guo3, Min Xiu1,4, Feng He1,4, Yuanlei Lou5, Fei Guo6,7


Low Expression of Polo‑like Kinase 1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Liver Cancer

Weixia Li1, Kunpeng Liu1, Dechen Lin2, Xin Xu2, Haizhen Lu3, Xinyu Bi4, Mingrong Wang2


Extracorporeal Photopheresis for Steroid‑refractory Chronic Graft‑versus‑host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Runzhe Chen1, Baoan Chen1, Peter Dreger2, Michael Schmitt2, Anita Schmitt2


Glucans and Cancer: Historical Perspective

Petr Sima1, Luca Vannucci1, Vaclav Vetvicka2


Implications of Circadian Rhythm Regulation by microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer

Song Wu1, Andrew Fesler2, Jingfang Ju2


BCL2 Family, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, and Beyond

Haiming Dai1, X. Wei Meng2, Scott H. Kaufmann2


Quantum Dot‑based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications

Li Zhou1, Jingzhe Yan2, Lingxia Tong3, Xuezhe Han4, Xuefeng Wu5, Peng Guo6


CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

Lu Huang1, Weiguo Lv2, Xiaofeng Zhao1


Etiological Trends in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Institutional Study

Varsha Salian, Chethana Dinakar, Pushparaja Shetty, Vidya Ajila


Effect of Irinotecan Combined with Cetuximab on Liver Function in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer with Liver Metastases

Yan Liang1, Yang Li2, Xin Li3, Jianfu Zhao4


The Role of Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer: Challenges for Targeted Therapy, Immune Modulating Treatment, Early Detection, and Less Invasive Operations

Khaled Kyle Wong1, Zhirong Qian2, Yi Le3


Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Natural Products

Weidong Li1,2*, Cihui Chen3*, Zheng Liu2, Baojin Hua1


The Potential of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Focus on Breast Cancer

Mahnaz M. Kazi, Trupti I. Trivedi, Toral P. Kobawala, Nandita R. Ghosh


Imaging‑driven Digital Biomarkers

Enrico Capobianco


Target‑Matching Accuracy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer: An Investigation Based on Four‑Dimensional Digital Human Phantom

Jing Cai1,2, Kate Turner2, Xiao Liang2, W. Paul Segars2,3, Chris R. Kelsey1, David Yoo1, Lei Ren1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2


Downregulation of Death‑associated Protein Kinase 3 and Caspase‑3 Correlate to the Progression and Poor Prognosis of Gliomas

Ye Song, Tianshi Que, Hao Long, Xi’an Zhang, Luxiong Fang, Zhiyong Li, Songtao Qi


Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

Ana Paula Cleto Marolla1, Jaques Waisberg2, Gabriela Tognini Saba2, Demétrius Eduardo Germini2, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal1


Melanoma Antigen Gene Family in the Cancer Immunotherapy

Fengyu Zhu1, Yu Liang1, Demeng Chen2, Yang Li1


Combined Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Collision Tumor Variation

Kaijun Huang1, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios1, Wanhua Yang2, Rajeev L. Balmiki3


Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line (Michigan Cancer Foundation‑7)

Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini


Impact of Age on the Biochemical Failure and Androgen Suppression after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men

Nigel P. Murray1,2, Eduardo Reyes1,3, Nelson Orellana1, Cynthia Fuentealba1, Omar Jacob1


Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: 35 Years of a Single Institution’s Experience

Rana I. Mahmood1,2, Mohammed Aldehaim1,3, Fazal Hussain4, Tusneem A. Elhassan4,
Zubeir A. Khan5, Muhammad A. Memon6


Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Therapy: A Discussion

Yeling Ouyang1, Xi Chen2, Chunyun Zhang1, Vichitra Bunyamanop1, Jianfeng Guo3


The Progress in Molecular Biomarkers of Gliomas

Jing Qi1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1


Correlation between Paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 and its Therapeutic Efficacy and Severe Toxicities in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Shuyao Zhang1*, Muyin Sun2*, Yun Yuan3*, Miaojun Wang4*, Yuqi She1*, Li Zhou5, Congzhu Li5, Chen Chen1, Shengqi Zhang4


Identifying Gaps and Relative Opportunities for Discovering Membrane Proteomic Biomarkers of Triple‑negative Breast Cancer as a Translational Priority

Bhooma Venkatraman


The Molecular Mechanism and Regulatory Pathways of Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Wang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2


Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems and Three‑dimensional Cell Cultures in Cancer Treatments and Research

Wenjin Shi1, Ding Weng2,3, Wanting Niu2,3


Choline Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TRAIL in the Treatment of Colorectal Tumors and Overcomes TRAIL Resistance

Juan Carlos Lacal1, Ladislav Andera2


MicroRNA Regulating Metabolic Reprogramming in Tumor Cells: New Tumor Markers

Daniel Otero‑Albiol, Blanca Felipe‑Abrio


Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Genome‑wide Perspective

José M. Santos‑Pereira1, Sandra Muñoz‑Galván2


Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide+ Metabolism Biomarkers in Malignant Gliomas

Manuel P. Jiménez‑García, Eva M. Verdugo‑Sivianes, Antonio Lucena‑Cacace


Patient-derived Xenografts as Models for Personalized Medicine Research in Cancer

Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero


Genome‑wide Transcriptome Analysis of Prostate Cancer Tissue Identified Overexpression of Specific Members of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus‑K Family

Behnam Sayanjali1,2


Clinical Utility of Interleukin‑18 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Reecha A. Parikh, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Mahnaz M. Kazi, Nandita R. Ghosh


Current and Future Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced Soft‑tissue Sarcoma beyond Anthracyclines and Ifosfamide

Nadia Hindi1,2, Javier Martin‑Broto1,2


The Genomic Organization and Function of IRX1 in Tumorigenesis and Development

Pengxing Zhang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2


Stem Cell‑based Approach in Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer Management

Yi‑Zhou Jiang1, Demeng Chen2


Mutation Detection with a Liquid Biopsy 96 Mutation Assay in Cancer Patients and Healthy Donors

Aaron Yun Chen, Glenn D. Braunstein, Megan S. Anselmo, Jair A. Jaboni, Fernando Troy Viloria, Julie A. Neidich, Xiang Li, Anja Kammesheidt


The Application of Estrogen Receptor‑1 Mutations’ Detection through Circulating Tumor DNA in Breast Cancer

Binliang Liu, Yalan Yang, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma


Circulating MicroRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs: Liquid Biomarkers in Thoracic Cancers

Pablo Reclusa1, Anna Valentino1, Rafael Sirera1,2, Martin Frederik Dietrich3, Luis Estuardo Raez3, Christian Rolfo1


Exosomes Biology: Function and Clinical Implications in Lung Cancer

Martin Frederik Dietrich1, Christian Rolfo2, Pablo Reclusa2, Marco Giallombardo2, Anna Valentino2, Luis E. Raez1


Circulating Tumor DNA: A Potential Biomarker from Solid Tumors’ Monitor to Anticancer Therapies

Ting Chen1,2, Rongzhang He1,3, Xinglin Hu1,3,4, Weihao Luo1, Zheng Hu1,3, Jia Li1, Lili Duan1, Yali Xie1,2, Wenna Luo1,2, Tan Tan1,2, Di‑Xian Luo1,2


Novel Molecular Multilevel Targeted Antitumor Agents

Poonam Sonawane1, Young A. Choi1, Hetal Pandya2, Denise M. Herpai1, Izabela Fokt3,
Waldemar Priebe3, Waldemar Debinski1


Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Effects and Clinical Relevance

Pei Liang, Michael Gao Jr.


Stemness‑related Markers in Cancer

Wenxiu Zhao1, Yvonne Li2, Xun Zhang1


Autophagy Regulated by miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Resistance

Andrew Fesler1, Hua Liu1, Ning Wu1,2, Fei Liu3, Peixue Ling3, Jingfang Ju1,3


Gastric Metastases Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: A Brief Literature Review

Simona Gurzu1,2,3, Marius Alexandru Beleaua1, Laura Banias2, Ioan Jung1


Possibility of Specific Expression of the Protein Toxins at the Tumor Site with Tumor‑specialized Promoter

Liyuan Zhou1,2, Yujun Li1,2, Changchen Hu3, Binquan Wang1,2


SKI‑178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models

Jeremy A. Hengst1,2, Taryn E. Dick1,2, Arati Sharma1, Kenichiro Doi3, Shailaja Hegde4, Su‑Fern Tan5, Laura M. Geffert1,2, Todd E. Fox5, Arun K. Sharma1, Dhimant Desai1, Shantu Amin1, Mark Kester5, Thomas P. Loughran5, Robert F. Paulson4, David F. Claxton6, Hong‑Gang Wang3, Jong K. Yun1,2


A T‑cell Engager‑armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to Target the Tumor Stroma

Feng Yu1, Bangxing Hong1, Xiao‑Tong Song1,2,3


Real‑world Experience with Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration‑resistant Prostate Cancer

Yasar Ahmed1, Nemer Osman1, Rizwan Sheikh2, Sarah Picardo1, Geoffrey Watson1


Combination of Interleukin‑11Rα Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‑cells and Programmed Death‑1 Blockade as an Approach to Targeting Osteosarcoma Cells In vitro

Hatel Rana Moonat, Gangxiong Huang, Pooja Dhupkar, Keri Schadler, Nancy Gordon,
Eugenie Kleinerman


Efficacy and Safety of Paclitaxel‑based Therapy and Nonpaclitaxel‑based Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

Tongwei Wu, Xiao Yang, Min An, Wenqin Luo, Danxian Cai, Xiaolong Qi


Motion Estimation of the Liver Based on Deformable Image Registration: A Comparison Between Four‑Dimensional‑Computed Tomography and Four‑Dimensional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xiao Liang1, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2, Yilin Liu1, Brian Czito2, Manisha Palta2, Mustafa Bashir3, Jing Cai1,2


A Feasibility Study of Applying Thermal Imaging to Assist Quality Assurance of High‑Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Xiaofeng Zhu1, Yu Lei1, Dandan Zheng1, Sicong Li1, Vivek Verma1, Mutian Zhang1, Qinghui Zhang1, Xiaoli Tang2, Jun Lian2, Sha X. Chang2, Haijun Song3, Sumin Zhou1, Charles A. Enke1


Role of Exosome microRNA in Breast Cancer

Wang Qu, Ma Fei, Binghe Xu


Recent Progress in Technological Improvement and Biomedical Applications of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas System

Yanlan Li1,2*, Zheng Hu1*, Yufang Yin3, Rongzhang He1, Jian Hu1, Weihao Luo1, Jia Li1, Gebo Wen2, Li Xiao1, Kai Li1, Duanfang Liao4, Di-Xian Luo1,5


The Significance of Nuclear Factor‑Kappa B Signaling Pathway in Glioma: A Review

Xiaoshan Xu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1


Markerless Four‑Dimensional‑Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection‑Phase Sorting Using Prior Knowledge and Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

Lei Zhang1,2, Yawei Zhang2, You Zhang1,2,3, Wendy B. Harris1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,4, Jing Cai1,4,5, Lei Ren1,2


The Producing Capabilities of Interferon‑g and Interleukin‑10 of Spleen Cells in Primary and Metastasized Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells-implanted Mice

Yasuka Azuma1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Toshihiro Inagaki4, Eiichi Chihara2, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Nobuo Kondoh1


“Eating” Cancer Cells by Blocking CD47 Signaling: Cancer Therapy by Targeting the Innate Immune Checkpoint

Yi‑Rong Xiang, Li Liu


Glycosylation is Involved in Malignant Properties of Cancer Cells

Kazunori Hamamura1, Koichi Furukawa2


Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Era of Precision Medicine

Qing‑Hao Zhu1*, Qing‑Chao Shang1*, Zhi‑Hao Hu1*, Yuan Liu2, Bo Li1, Bo Wang1, An‑Hui Wang1


I‑Kappa‑B Kinase‑epsilon Activates Nuclear Factor‑kappa B and STAT5B and Supports Glioblastoma Growth but Amlexanox Shows Little Therapeutic Potential in These Tumors

Nadège Dubois1, Sharon Berendsen2, Aurélie Henry1,2, Minh Nguyen1, Vincent Bours1,
Pierre Alain Robe1,2


Suppressive Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Interferon‑g‑Producing Capability of Spleen Cells was Specifically Enhanced through Humoral Mediator(s) from Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sq‑1979 Cells In Vitro

Toshihiro Inagaki1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Eiichi Chihara4, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Shinichiro Sumitomo5, Nobuo Kondoh1


An Interplay Between MicroRNA and SOX4 in the Regulation of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Progression

Anjali Geethadevi1, Ansul Sharma2, Manish Kumar Sharma3, Deepak Parashar1


MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Prostate Cancer of African‑American and European‑American Men

Ernest K. Amankwah


The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Screening Anticancer Agents

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Taoli Sun3, Shengping Zhang1, Hongyan Zhang1


Panobinostat and Its Combination with 3‑Deazaneplanocin‑A Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit In vitro Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in GOS‑3 Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Javier de la Rosa*, Alejandro Urdiciain*, Juan Jesús Aznar‑Morales, Bárbara Meléndez1,
Juan A. Rey2, Miguel A. Idoate3, Javier S. Castresana


Cancer Stem‑Like Cells Have Cisplatin Resistance and miR‑93 Regulate p21 Expression in Breast Cancer

Akiko Sasaki1, Yuko Tsunoda2, Kanji Furuya3, Hideto Oyamada1, Mayumi Tsuji1, Yuko Udaka1, Masahiro Hosonuma1, Haruna Shirako1, Nana Ichimura1, Yuji Kiuchi1


The Contribution of Hexokinase 2 in Glioma

Hui Liu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang3, Yanyang Tu1


The Mechanism of BMI1 in Regulating Cancer Stemness Maintenance, Metastasis, Chemo‑ and Radiation Resistance

Xiaoshan Xu, Zhen Wang, Nan Liu, Pengxing Zhang, Hui Liu, Jing Qi, Yanyang Tu


A Multisource Adaptive Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Technique for Versatile Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lei Zhang1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,3, Brittany Moore1,2, Silu Han1,2, Jing Cai1,2,4


Senescence and Cancer

Sulin Zeng1,2, Wen H. Shen2, Li Liu1


The “Wild”‑type Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Heterogeneity on Molecule Characteristics and Clinical Features

Yanhua Mou1, Quan Wang1, Bin Li1,2


Retreatment with Cabazitaxel in a Long‑Surviving Patient with Castration‑Resistant Prostate Cancer and Visceral Metastasis

Raquel Luque Caro, Carmen Sánchez Toro, Lucia Ochoa Vallejo


Therapy‑Induced Histopathological Changes in Breast Cancers: The Changing Role of Pathology in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Shazima Sheereen1, Flora D. Lobo1, Waseemoddin Patel2, Shamama Sheereen3,
Abhishek Singh Nayyar4, Mubeen Khan5


Glioma Research in the Era of Medical Big Data

Feiyifan Wang1, Christopher J. Pirozzi2, Xuejun Li1


Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Adenomas: Case Report and Literature Review

Jian‑Hong Zhong1,2, Kang Chen1, Bhavesh K. Ahir3, Qi Huang4, Ye Wu4, Cheng‑Cheng Liao1, Rong‑Rong Jia1, Bang‑De Xiang1,2, Le‑Qun Li1,2


Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, Role in Cancer, and Novel Drug Target

Antonio Lucena‑Cacace1,2,3, Amancio Carnero1,2


Enhanced Anticancer Effect by Combination of Proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on Bladder Cancer Cells

Michael Zhang, Kelvin Zheng, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno


Molecular Insights Turning Game for Management of Ependymoma: A Review of Literature

Ajay Sasidharan, Rahul Krishnatry


IDH Gene Mutation in Glioma

Leping Liu1, Xuejun Li1,2


Challenges and Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Report and Literature Review

Gerard Cathal Millen1, Karen A. Manias1,2, Andrew C. Peet1,2, Jenny K. Adamski1


Assessing the Feasibility of Using Deformable Registration for Onboard Multimodality‑Based Target Localization in Radiation Therapy

Ge Ren1,2,3, Yawei Zhang1,2, Lei Ren1,2


Research Advancement in the Tumor Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Qing Du1, Xiaoying Ji2, Guangjing Yin3, Dengxian Wei3, Pengcheng Lin1, Yongchang Lu1,
Yugui Li3, Qiaohong Yang4, Shizhu Liu5, Jinliang Ku5, Wenbin Guan6, Yuanzhi Lu7


Novel Insights into the Role of Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Lei Zhang1, Guoyu Qiu2, Xiaohui Xu2, Yufeng Zhou3, Ruiming Chang4


Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Unusual Presenting Symptoms

Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal


The Prognostic Role of Lactate in Patients Who Achieved Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Dongni Ren1, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1,2


Inhibitory Effect of Hyaluronidase‑4 in a Rat Spinal Cord Hemisection Model

Xipeng Wang1,2, Mitsuteru Yokoyama2, Ping Liu3


Research and Development of Anticancer Agents under the Guidance of Biomarkers

Xiaohui Xu1, Guoyu Qiu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Ruling Jia1, Bo Zhao1


Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Mansoor C. Abdulla


Phosphorylation of BRCA1‑Associated Protein 1 as an Important Mechanism in the Evasion of Tumorigenesis: A Perspective

Guru Prasad Sharma1, Anjali Geethadevi2, Jyotsna Mishra3, G. Anupa4, Kapilesh Jadhav5,
K. S. Vikramdeo6, Deepak Parashar2


Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of Biliary‑Pancreatic System

Ge Zengzheng1, Huang-Sheng Ling2, Ming-Feng Li2, Xu Xiaoyan1, Yao Kai1, Xu Tongzhen3,
Ge Zengyu4, Li Zhou5


Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Study the Biological Activity of Anticancer Agent

Guoyu Qiu1, Xiaohui Xu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Huan Yang5


Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Breast Tumors

Steven Lehrer1, Peter H. Rheinstein2


OSMCC: An Online Survival Analysis Tool for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai1, Qiang Wang1, Xiaoxiao Sun1, Yifang Dang1, JiaJia Lv1,2, Junfang Xin1, Wan Zhu3, Yongqiang Li1, Xinying Ji1, Xiangqian Guo1


Protective Activity of Selenium against 5‑Fluorouracil‑Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Beauty Tokoni Amgbare


Advances on the Components of Fibrinolytic System in Malignant Tumors

Zengzheng Ge1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Zengyu Ge2, Shaopeng Zhou3, Xiulin Li1, Kai Yao1, Lan Deng4


A Patient with Persistent Foot Swelling after Ankle Sprain: B‑Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mimicking Soft‑tissue Sarcoma

Crystal R. Montgomery‑Goecker1, Andrew A. Martin2, Charles F. Timmons3, Dinesh Rakheja3, Veena Rajaram3, Hung S. Luu3


Coenzyme Q10 and Resveratrol Abrogate Paclitaxel‑Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Loritta Wasini Harris


Progress in Clinical Follow‑up Study of Dendritic Cells Combined with Cytokine‑Induced Killer for Stomach Cancer

Ling Wang1,2, Run Wan1,2, Cong Chen1,2, Ruiliang Su1,2, Yumin Li1,2


Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy as the Initial Manifestation in Carcinoma of Cervix

Priyanka Priyaarshini1, Tapan Kumar Sahoo2


ABO Typing Error Resolution and Transfusion Support in a Case of an Acute Leukemia Patient Showing Loss of Antigen Expression

Debasish Mishra1, Gopal Krushna Ray1, Smita Mahapatra2, Pankaj Parida2


Protein Disulfide Isomerase A3: A Potential Regulatory Factor of Colon Epithelial Cells

Yang Li1, Zhenfan Huang2, Haiping Jiang3


Clinicopathological Association of p16 and its Impact on Outcome of Chemoradiation in Head‑and‑Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Patients in North‑East India

Srigopal Mohanty1, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi2, Nithin Raj Daniel3, Dulasi Raman Ponna4,
Ph. Madhubala Devi5, Laishram Jaichand Singh2


Potential Inhibitor for 2019‑Novel Coronaviruses in Drug Development

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Lei Zhang3, Lingxue Zhuang4, Wutang Jing5, Lupeng Ji6, Guoyu Qiu1


Best‑Match Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Mixed Autoantibodies

Debasish Mishra1, Dibyajyoti Sahoo1, Smita Mahapatra2, Ashutosh Panigrahi3


Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Pheochromocytoma

Nadeema Rafiq1, Tauseef Nabi2, Sajad Ahmad Dar3, Shahnawaz Rasool4


Comparison of Histopathological Grading and Staging of Breast Cancer with p53‑Positive and Transforming Growth Factor‑Beta Receptor 2‑Negative Immunohistochemical Marker Expression Cases

Palash Kumar Mandal1, Anindya Adhikari2, Subir Biswas3, Amita Giri4, Arnab Gupta5,
Arindam Bhattacharya6


Chemical Compositions and Antiproliferative Effect of Essential Oil of Asafoetida on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line and Female Wistar Rats

Seyyed Majid Bagheri1,2, Davood Javidmehr3, Mohammad Ghaffari1, Ehsan Ghoderti‑Shatori4


Cyclooxygenase‑2 Contributes to Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting an Immunosuppressive Environment

Mun Kyoung Kim1, Aidin Iravani2, Matthew K. Topham2,3


Potential role of CircMET as A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Yan Liu1,2,3,4#, Chen Cui1,2,3,4#, Jidong Liu1,2,3,4, Peng Lin1,2,3,4,Kai Liang1,2,3,4, Peng Su5, Xinguo Hou1,2,3,4, Chuan Wang1,2,3,4, Jinbo Liu1,2,3,4, Bo Chen6, Hong Lai1,2,3,4, Yujing Sun1,2,3,4* and Li Chen 1,2,3,4*


Cuproptosis-related Genes in Glioblastoma as Potential Therapeutic Targets

Zhiyu Xia1,2, Haotian Tian1, Lei Shu1,2, Guozhang Tang3, Zhenyu Han4, Yangchun Hu1*, Xingliang Dai1*


Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments by Porous Inorganic Nanocarriers

Jianfeng Xu1,2, Hanwen Zhang1,2, Xiaohui Song1,2, Yangong Zheng3, Qingning Li1,2,4*


Delayed (20 Years) post-surgical Esophageal Metastasis of Breast Cancer - A Case Report

Bowen Hu1#, Lingyu Du2#, Hongya Xie1, Jun Ma1, Yong Yang1*, Jie Tan2*


Subtyping of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Its Clinical Meaning

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai, Zhendong Lu, Fengling Wang, Muhammad Usman Akbar, Saadullah Khattak, Muhammad Badar, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Longxiang Xie, Yongqiang Li, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo


Construction of Glioma Prognosis Model and Exploration of Related Regulatory Mechanism of Model Gene

Suxia Hu, Abdusemer Reyimu, Wubi Zhou, Xiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Xia Chen, Weiqiang Li, Jingjing Dai


ESRP2 as a Non-independent Potential Biomarker-Current Progress in Tumors

Yuting Chen, Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo, Chengkuan Zhao, Shuyao Zhang


Resection of Bladder Tumors at the Ureteral Orifice Using a Hook Plasma Electrode: A Case Report

Jun Li, Ziyong Wang, Qilin Wang


Structural Characterization and Bioactivity for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides

Jinghua Qi1,2,  Hangping Chen3,Huaqing Lin2,4,Hongyuan Chen1,2,5* and Wen Rui2,3,5,6*


The Role of IL-22 in the Prevention of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Liver Injury

Xingli Qi1,2, Huaqing Lin2,3, Wen Rui2,3,4,5 and Hongyuan Chen1,2,3


RBM15 and YTHDF3 as Positive Prognostic Predictors in ESCC: A Bioinformatic Analysis Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)

Yulou Luo1, Lan Chen2, Ximing Qu3, Na Yi3, Jihua Ran4, Yan Chen3,5*


Mining and Analysis of Adverse Drug Reaction Signals Induced by Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Based on the FAERS Database

Xiumin Zhang1,2#, Xinyue Lin1,3#, Siman Su1,3#, Wei He3, Yuying Huang4, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xiaoshan Chen3, Jialin Zhong3, Chong Liu3, Wang Chen3, Chengcheng Xu3, Ping Yang5, Man Zhang5, Yanli Lei5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*


Advancements in Immunotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

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Tumor Regression after COVID-19 Infection in Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: A Case Report

Qiaoxin Lin1, Bin Liang1, Yangyang Li2, Ling Tian3*, Dianna Gu1*


Mining and Analysis of Adverse Events of BRAF Inhibitors Based on FDA Reporting System

Silan Peng1,2#, Danling Zheng1,3#, Yanli Lei4#, Wang Chen3, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xinyue Lin1, Xiaoshan Chen3, Wei He3, Li Li3, Qiuzhen Zhang5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*


Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Fever, Anemia, Hypoproteinemia: A Rare and Strange Case Report and Literature Review

Zhenghang Li1, Yuxian Wei1*


Construction of Cuproptosis-Related LncRNA Signature as a Prognostic Model Associated with Immune Microenvironment for Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Jiyao Yu1#, Shukai Zhang2#, Qingwen Ran3, Xuemei Li4,5,6*


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