Cancer Translational Medicine

Review | Open Access

Vol.9 (2023) | Issue-2 | Page No: 77-84


ESRP2 as a Non-independent Potential Biomarker-Current Progress in Tumors

Yuting Chen, Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo, Chengkuan Zhao, Shuyao Zhang


1. Department of Pharmacy, Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

2. Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

* Corresponding Author

Important Dates  

Date of Submission:   14-Feb-2023

Date of Acceptance:   17-Apr-2023

Date of Publication:   30-Jun-2023


Tumor has always been a global health burden. Recent studies of various tumor cell lines have found abnormal expression of epithelial splicing regulator protein 2 (ESRP2), which is related to tumor development, invasion, metastasis and prognosis. ESRP2 is anticipated to become a potential biomarker and therapeutic target. This article classifies and summarizes the studies on ESRP2 in tumors in order to provide more theoretical basis for future research and clinical application.


Epithelial splicing regulator protein 2 (ESRP2, alias: RBM35B) is an epithelial cell type specific splicing regulator, located on chromosome 16q22.1. RNA sequencing of tissue samples from 95 people representing 27 different tissues in the NCBI database revealed ESRP2 expression levels in many tissues of the human body, with the highest expression level in skin tissues [Figure 1] ( Through genome-wide cDNA expression screening, Warzecha et al. identified two RNA binding proteins belonging to the hnRNP family: RBM35A and RBM35B. ESRP2 has a molecular mass of 78 kDa and is composed of three conserved tandem RNA recognition motifs.[1] Later, RBM35A and RBM35B were renamed as epithelial cell splicing regulator protein 1 (ESRP1) and 2 (ESRP2). As one of the proteins regulating alternative splicing in epithelial cells, ESRP2 directs the epithelial splicing program necessary for mammalian development. Thus, it plays a crucial role in the development process and tissue homeostasis of many organs, including the craniofacial and epidermal development, as well as the branching morphogenesis of the lung and salivary glands.[2],[3]

Figure 1.
Figure 1. ESRP2 expression level in HPA RNA-seq normal tissues

The functional differences between ESRP1 and ESRP2 remain to be clearly elucidated. In the structural c-terminal region, ESRP1 has a proline-rich region with homology to DAZAP2, whereas ESRP2 has a region with homology to FAM70. Though the role played by these domains in ESRP function is not clear,[3] evidence shows diverse functions. Interestingly, high expression of ESRP2, but not ESRP1, was observed in the corresponding human homologues in both mouse and adult liver. Double knockout mouse embryos defects in branching morphogenesis of the lung and salivary glands and epidermal hypoplasia and reduced hair follicles. These findings suggest some functional redundancy between ESRP1 and ESRP2.[2]


ESRP2 is involved in regulating, the alternative splicing (AS) events associated with the epithelial phenotype, and affecting cellular function.[3] ESRP2 promotes FGFR2, ENAH, CD44 and CTNND1 splicing of transcript epithelial variants. Many of these regulated splicing events occur in gene transcripts encoding proteins. These proteins function well in regulating the actin cytoskeleton organization, cell-cell adhesion, cell polarity, and cell migration.[4]

Splicing of mRNA precursors is an important mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Alternative splicing generates mRNA variants that encode isoforms of proteins with different or even opposite functions that are transcribed from individual genes. The RNA-binding proteins that regulate alternative splicing events can be divided into two families, a serine/arginine(SR)-rich protein and a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein: hnRNPs. Splice-regulated RNA binding protein (RBP) recruited to the respective binding sites can have positive or negative effects on the splicing of different exons or splice sites. In general, ESRP2, as a member of the hnRNPs, interacts with exons or intron splicing repressors to promote exon skipping.[2],[5]

ESRP2 is also involved in regulating the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. EMT is a fundamental biological process during embryonic development and is also involved in tumor metastasis.[6] During EMT, combinations of ESRPs and other EMT splicing factors, including RBFOX2, PTB, RBM47, and QKI, affect the dynamic changes in splicing during cell transformation and cell-and tissue-specific splicing during cell transformation. ESRP2 and its family member ESRP1, the main regulators of EMT, act more prominently, promoting the epithelial splicing pattern that is abolished during EMT.[7]

Tumors can acquire growth and survival advantage by alternative splicing, which affects tumor carcinogenesis and development.[8] Many of these alternative splice variants (SV) are cancer-specific and helpful for finding reliable biomarkers for prognostic or diagnostic purposes.[9] EMT is an embryonic process that relaxes cell–cell adhesion complexes and endows cells with enhanced migratory and invasive properties and can be selected by cancer cells during metastatic progression. Cancer cells undergoing EMT are more invasive and reveal enhanced aggressiveness.[10] Therefore, ESRP2 is closely linked to the development of tumors, either through alternative splicing or through its participating form in the EMT process.

Through alternative splicing, ESRP2 affects the development, invasion, and prognosis of tumors

In a study of prostate tumor, Shah et al. used a variety of genomic approaches, including Affymetrix splicing array, whole transcriptome RNA-seq analysis, and RT-PCR, and found that ESRP1 and ESRP2, as epithelial-specific splicing regulators, are flanking many AR-regulated alternatively spliced exons.[11] 2D invasion assay results also demonstrated that ESRP2 inhibition reduced AR antagonist-driven tumor invasion. Their findings not only suggested that ESRP2 promotes tumor invasion through alternative splicing, prostate tumor progression, and development of resistance to carutamide and engamyramide therapy, but also opened a new therapeutic avenue and support the rationale of combining ESRP2 modulators with AR antagonists for an advanced prostate tumor to counteract the AR antagonist-driven aggressive phenotype.

Legge et al. showed that ESRP2 produced Wilms tumor (WT) by frequent silencing via DNA hypermethylation in WT and acted as a tumor suppressor gene that regulated alternative splicing in new genes.[12] ESRP2 expression could be reactivated by DNA methyltransferase inhibition in the WT cell line. When ESRP2 was overexpressed in WT cell lines, it inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in orthotopic xenografts in nude mice in vivo, implying that ESRP2 acted as a tumor suppressor in WT.

In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) studies, an abnormally progressive expression of mucin expressed by epithelial cells in PDAC tumors was found. Principal component analysis from PDAC tumor samples identified four novel mucin-based PDAC subtypes in the study by Thompson et al.[13] By assessing mucin SV, significantly longer survival was observed with higher expression of 4 MUC1 and 1 MUC13 SVs, whereas patients expressing 2 MUC4 and 1 MUC16 SVs had shorter survival. In the analysis of cell-related genes, ESRP2 is a positively correlated gene, indicating that ESRP2 also indirectly affects the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through splice variants.

ESRP2 affects tumor development, metastasis risk, and prognosis by participating in the EMT process

ESRP2 affected the development and prognosis of breast cancer by engaging in EMT regulation. Horvath et al. reported that ESRP2 with the R353Q substitution impaired the ability to bind to the substrate FGFR2 precursor RNA and has a regulatory role between molecules associated with breast cancer.[14] The effects of rare SNP-p.R353Q on binding and splicing of its pretarget-mRNA, its three RRM domains, regulating the expression of specific splice variants of FGFR2, CTNND1 and ENAH were involved in the EMT process. In addition, RT-PCR results showed increased expression of epithelial FGFR2 isoform IIIb after transfection with mesenchymal FGFR2 IIIc expression cell lines MDA-MB-231 and BT-549. Heilmann et al. reported that coordinated overexpression of ESRP2 and ESRP2-as was significantly upregulated in human breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis.[15] They used sequencing to deeply analyze tumors in mouse models and found a coordinated overexpression of ESRP2 and ESRP2-as, a hypomethylated lncRNA, 1810019D21Rik was negatively correlated with DNA methylation. Knockdown of ESRP2-as reduced ESRP2 protein levels without affecting mRNA expression and resulted in an altered transcriptional profile associated with the extracellular matrix, cell motility, and reduced proliferation, whereas overexpression enhanced proliferation. Fici et al. used the ratio of ESRP1, ESRP2, and RBFOX2, the three splicing factors, as indicators of epithelial and stromal transformation and tumor aggressiveness in breast cancer. The results of the in vitro EMT model indicated that the ratio between the phenotype-specific splicing factor ESRP2/RBFOX2 was significantly reduced during EMT,[16] positively associated with the EMT-specific phenotype, and the low ESRP2/RBFOX2 ratio was associated with a higher risk of metastasis in early-stage breast cancer patients.

Through qPCR and protein blot assay, Ishii et al. found that ESRP2 effectively suppressed E-cadherin mRNA and protein levels in head and neck tumor cell lines.[17] That is to say, ESRP2 suppresses tumor cell movement by inhibiting EMT-related transcription factors, which affects the development of head and neck tumor.

ESRP2 affects the development and prognosis of tumors through its coordinated effects with upstream and downstream molecules

Hyun et al. found that ESRP2, as an RNA splicing factor, has suppressed expression in chronic inflammation, leading to the accumulation of fetal NF2 in the chronically injured liver, whereas inactive NF2 lost the ability to activate Hippo kinase, resulting in increased activity of YAP/TAZ, thus promoting hepatobiliary carcinogenesis in chronically injured liver.[18] Knockdown of ESRP2 expression downregulated the ESRP2-NF2-YAP/TAZ axis and promoted the hepatobiliary carcinogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Their research demonstrated a poor prognosis of HCC patients with low ESRP2 expression and high fetal NF2 mRNA expression.

Mizutani et al. revealed that the Arkadia-ESRP2 axis inhibited tumor progression.[19] Their research found that ESRP2 was expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Arkadia, a RING-type E3 ligase, serves an important function in vertebrate development and pathophysiology by enhancing TGF-β signaling activity. Arkadia was able to physically interact with ESRP2, inducing polyubiquitination and modulating its splicing function to inhibit the growth of ccRCC tumors in a coordinated manner. Low expression of Arkadia is correlated with advanced tumor stage and poor prognosis in ccRCC patients.

In the study of pituitary adenoma (PA), Lu et al. found a significantly higher expression of long non-coding RNA IFNG-AS1 in tumors in comparison to non-tumor tissue.[20] The knockdown of IFNG-AS1 significantly inhibited tumor progression, while its overexpression significantly promoted tumor progression. ESRP2 was shown to be the target protein of IFNG-AS1 in PA; while the knockdown of ESRP2 reversed the tumor suppression effect of IFNG-AS1’s knockdown, overexpression of ESRP2 abolished the tumor-promoting effect of IFNG-AS1 overexpression in HP75 cells. Their findings suggest that IFNG-AS1 may exert its oncogenic properties as an oncogene in PA through its interaction with ESRP2.

Myc target 1 (MYCT1) has been shown by several studies that it might act as a tumor suppressor in laryngeal cancer. Yue et al. found that miR-629-3p and ESRP2 are both downstream targets of MYCT1 in laryngeal cancer cells,[21] and MYCT1 significantly reduced the expression of miR-629-3p but increased ESRP2 expression in laryngeal cancer cells. Finally, they demonstrated that MYCT1 through the SP1/miR-629-3p/ESRP2 pathway inhibits EMT and migration of laryngeal cancer cells.

Huang et al. found that hsa _ circ _ 0001495 (a circular RNA: circRNA) was predicted to interact with ESRP2 and acted as a sponge by competing with TBL1XR1 for miRNA,[22] and its expression was significantly upregulated in cervical carcinoma (CC). Functionally, hsa _ circ _ 0001495 might contribute to epithelial cell proliferation and signaling by binding to ESRP2. The strong positive correlation between hsa _ circ _ 0001495 and ESRP2 suggested that they might cooperate with each other to promote tumorigenesis in CC.


Chen et al. identified the relationship between DNA copy number alterations (CNA) in chromosome 16 and intrahepatic recurrence in populations with a high prevalence of HCC,[23] and further screened for the differentially expressed genes in relapse-associated CNA. Array comparative genomic hybridization and expression arrays were used to detect CNA and gene expression differences. Multivariate cox analysis identified 16q22.1 loss as an independent risk factor for intrahepatic recurrence. ESRP2 was found to be significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma in the differentially expressed gene analysis, with a loss of 16q22.1 compared to the genes without loss. The results showed that the loss at 16q22.1 and ESRP2 downregulation were associated with an increased risk of intrahepatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.

To investigate the effect of RNA binding proteins on the prognosis and malignant progression of prostate cancer, Hua et al. used bioinformatics analysis to identify RBP genes with prognostic and diagnostic value and identified nine RBP genes including EXO1, PABPC1L, REXO2, MBNL2, MSI1, CTU1, MAEL, YBX2, and ESRP2, by functional enrichment analysis,[24] protein-protein interaction network and their prognostic values by Cox regression analysis. Their prognostic value was further confirmed by the Kaplan-Meier curve: low expression of ESRP2 was found in samples with high pathological T stage, high pathological grade and high Gleason score. The involvement of ESRP2 in the establishment of prostate cancer risk score models could improve the assessment of treatment response and prognosis in prostate cancer patients. In a similar study by Xing et al., a prediction model for biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with prostate cancer (PCA) was developed and came with the opposite result: the protein expression level of five RBP including ESRP2 in prostate cancer tissue was higher than that of normal prostate tissue.[25] The BCR prediction risk score model found that the risk score of ESRP2 was also high, and ESRP2 upregulation predicted a higher risk of prostate cancer recurrence.

Also in the investigation of the impact on prognosis, Freytag et al. evaluated the impact of changes in ESRP2 and its family member ESRP1 on the prognosis of patients with prostate cancer.[26] Immunohistochemical analysis of ESRP2 and ESRP1 showed that the worst prognosis for cancers came with high ESRP2 and ESRP1 expression; and multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic impact of ESRP1, ESRP2 and ESRP1/ESRP2 combined expression was independent of all established pre-and postoperative prognostic characteristics. Their study showed that upregulation of ESRP2 expression predicted poor prognosis in prostate cancer.


Firstly, ESRP2 has functional duality in tumors in general. In different tumors, ESRP2 exerts its tumor-promoting or inhibitory effects through different mechanisms [Table 1]. Studies on ESRP2 in tumors have shown that this gene can directly or indirectly participate in the progression of various tumors by affecting splicing variation, EMT process, or interacting with upstream and downstream molecules. The effect of variable splicing promotion of ESRP2 covered a wide range of tumors, including the promotion of androgen receptor antagonist-mediated invasion and therapy resistance in prostate cancer, as well as the inhibition of Wilms tumor development. ESRP2 variable splicing also upregulated the expression of mucin with an indirect effect on the prognosis of pancreatic ductal cancer. ESRP2 can also affect the metastasis risk of breast cancer, and the prognosis of head and neck cancer by participating in EMT. In the research of ESRP2 through its coordination with upstream and downstream molecules, ESRP2 promotes the development of cervical cancer, but in laryngeal cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma and pituitary adenoma, ESRP2 acts as a tumor suppressor. In other studies, such as gene differential expression analysis, the investigators verified the involvement of ESRP2 in the prediction model of RNA binding protein (RNP)-based prostate cancer (PCA) patients and also confirmed that ESRP2 downregulation was associated with an increased risk of intrahepatic recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Table 1.
Table 1. Relationship between ESRP2 and tumors

Secondly, in recent years, it is found that even in the same tumor, ESRP2 may have a positive or negative impact on the tumor. In the research of breast cancer, Heilmann et al. found that high expression of ESRP2 had a negative impact on the prognosis of breast cancer,[15] while Fici et al. showed that low expression of ESRP2 was instead associated with a higher risk of metastasis;[16] Similarly, different studies have shown that ESRP2 expression may have a detrimental effect on prostate cancer progression.

ESRP1, another member of the hnRNP family, also serves dual functions in tumors. There are still unsettled controversies about whether ESRP1 can be regarded as a biomarker in tumors. ESRP1 mediated alternative splicing of target genes, including CD44, FGFR2-IIIb, CDC20, LRRFIP2, etc.,[27],[28],[29],[30] leading to cancer progression. ESRP1 also reduced the expression level of chemoresistance genes AXLJFI16 and CAV1.[31] By affecting the metabolism and redox processes of cellular fatty acid , ESRP1 could influence the prognosis of breast cancer.[32] While Vadlamudi et al. has suggested that ESRP1 might be considered as a potential therapeutic target in colorectal cancer for its silencing-induced caspase-independent cell death by regulating CD116 alternative splicing.[33] And most studies illustrated the mechanisms of ESRP1’s effect on various tumors and such results do not support the idea of ESRP1 as a therapeutic or prognostic biomarker.

The duality of functions presented by ESRP1 and ESRP2 in tumors might be related to the complication in the development and progression of tumors as well as the influence of extrinsic factors and the individualization of patients. However, the increasing number of gene pathways associated with ESRP2 affecting tumors have been gradually revealed, indicating that ESRP2 may promote or inhibit tumors by regulating upstream and downstream proteins. Therefore, ESRP2 may not be suitable alone as a potentially applied biomarker in tumors. Future research will yield more significant value for the practical application of ESRP2 in the diagnosis and treatment of clinical tumors if more clinical samples and reproducible experiments of ESRP2 expression are used to confirm the correlation between ESRP2 expression and different types of tumors.



This article was partially supported by the grants from 2022 Guangzhou Basic Research Plan, basic and applied basic research projects jointly funded by the city and schools (college) (No. 202201020078), Research-oriented Hospital Program of Guangzhou (No.RHPG05), Guangdong Science and Technology Special Fund in 2022 (“Large Special + Task List”) [Shan Fu Ke letter (2022) 144, No.STKJ202209072] (all to Shuyao Zhang).



There are no conflicts of interest.



Not applicable.



Yuting Chen drafted the manuscript. Shuyao Zhang undertook the guidance and revised the article. Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo and Chengkuan Zhao collected the data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



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Minghui Liu1#, Xin Li1#, Hongbing Zhang1, Fan Ren1, Ming Dong1, Chunqiu Xia1, Jun Chen1,2*

Increased Expression of IL-17A, IL-6, STAT3, TGF-β, and VEGF: Potential Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer?

Zishen Xiao1, Chengxia Bai1, Teng Zhao1, Jiayu Lin1, Lijuan Yang1, Jian Liu2, Zhenjiang Wang1, Ying Sun3,4, Yanbo Liu1*

Identification of NSD2 as a Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Wei Zhao1#, Xinyu Xiao1#, Yu Gao1,2, Shanshan Liu3, Xiuzhen Zhang1, Changhong Yang1, Qiling Peng1, Ning Jiang2*, Jianwei Wang1*

Quercetin Inhibits Glioma Proliferation by Targeting CDK1 and CCNB1 - Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Huaixu Li1#, Peng Gao1#, Haotian Tian1, Zhenyu Han2, Xingliang Dai1*, Hongwei Cheng1*

Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Yttrium-90 Microspheres in Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Applications and recent advances

Wei Wang1, Dawei Xie1, Bing Li1, Minghao Chen1*

Irreversible Electroporation in Pancreatic Cancer – Applications and recent advances

Yuanyuan Sun1, Qian Li2, Jia Hu2, Yanfang Liu2*, Xiaosong Li2*

Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T‑stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Shengen Yi, Xiongjian Cui, Li Xiong, Xiaofeng Deng, Dongni Pei, Yu Wen, Xiongying Miao

MicroRNAs are Related to Rituximab in Combination with Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone Resistance in Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

Haibo Huang1, Junjiao Gu1, Shuna Yao1, Zhihua Yao1, Yan Zhao1, Qingxin Xia2, Jie Ma2, Ling Mai3, Shujun Yang1, Yanyan Liu1

Comparison of Intra-voxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in the Evaluation of Focal Malignant Liver Masses

Jinrong Qu1, Xiang Li1, Lei Qin2, Lifeng Wang1, Junpeng Luo1, Jianwei Zhang1, Hongkai Zhang1, Jing Li1, Fei Sun3, Shouning Zhang1, Yanle Li1, Cuicui Liu1, Hailiang Li1

Extracting Breathing Signal Using Fourier Transform from Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Jing Cai1,2, Yilin Liu2, Fangfang Yin1,2

Split End Family RNA Binding Proteins: Novel Tumor Suppressors Coupling Transcriptional Regulation with RNA Processing

Hairui Su1, Yanyan Liu2, Xinyang Zhao1

Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

Pengxing  Zhang1, Xiaoling Pang2,3, Yanyang Tu1,4

Associations of Age and Chemotherapy with Late Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Toxicity in a Hypofractionated Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Schedule in Post‑mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients

Mohammad Akram1, Ghufran Nahid1, Shahid Ali Siddiqui1, Ruquiya Afrose2

Monitoring of Disease Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia‑chronic Phase Patients Treated with Indian Generic Veenat (NATCO) Imatinib Mesylate: A Tertiary Care Experience

Khushboo Dewan, Tathagat Chatterjee

Review of Cancer Immunotherapy: Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death‑ligand 1 Antibodies

Tengfei Zhang1,2, Ling Cao1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongli Yue1, Yu Ping1, Hong Li1, Lan Huang1, Yi Zhang1,3,4,5

Systematic Review of MicroRNAs and its Therapeutic Potential in Glioma

Nan Liu1, Yanyang Tu2

The Involvement of p53‑miR‑34a‑CDK4 Signaling During the Development of Cervical Cancer

Huijun Zuo, Jieqi Xiong, Hongwei Chen, Sisun Liu, Qiaoying Gong, Fei Guo

Unusual Clinical Presentation of a Rare Type of Breast Malignancy: A Case Report and a Short Review of Literature

Nadeesha J. Nawarathna1, Navam R. Kumarasinghe1, Palitha Rathnayake2,
Ranjith J. K. Seneviratne1

Sweet’s Syndrome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t (9:22)

Khushboo Dewan, Shailaja Shukla

Analysis of the Correlationship between Prostate Specific Antigen Related Variables and Risk Factor in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma

Daoyuan Wang1, Tiejun Yang2, Yongqiang Zou1, Xinqiang Yang1

Recent Progress in Genetic and Epigenetic Profile of Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Zhengxi He1, Bin Li1,2

Strategies for Management of Spinal Metastases: A Comprehensive Review

Zhantao Deng, Bin Xu, Jiewen Jin, Jianning Zhao, Haidong Xu

Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

Xia Mao, Yanqiong Zhang, Na Lin

Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yupeng Lei1, Hongxia Chen2, Pi Liu1, Xiaodong Zhou1

Expression Characteristics of miR‑10b in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Gang Li, Yunteng Zhao, Jianqi Wang, Haoran Huang, Mengwen Zhang

An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

Zonggao Shi, M. Sharon Stack

Promoter Methylated Tumor Suppressor Genes in Glioma

Yingduan Cheng1, Yanyang Tu2, Pei Liang3

Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

Chenyang Liu1*, Qian Qian2*, Shen Geng1, Wenkui Sun1, Yi Shi1

Functional Perspective and Implications of Gene Expression by Noncoding RNAs

Xiaoshuang Yan1, Huanyu Xu2, Zhonghai Yan3

Expression of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Multiple Myeloma Patients after Treatment with the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib

James Joseph Driscoll

miR‑505 Downregulates 6‑Phosphofructo‑2‑Kinase/ Fructose‑2,6‑Biphosphatase 4 to Promote Cell Death in Glioblastoma

Esther H. Chung, Hongwei Yang, Hongyan Xing, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson

Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosing Bone Tumors

Sonal Mahajan1, Akash Arvind Saoji2, Anil Agrawal1

Histone H2A and H2B Deubiquitinase in Developmental Disease and Cancer

Demeng Chen1, Caifeng Dai2, Yizhou Jiang3

Genetic Characteristics of Glioblastoma: Clinical Implications of Heterogeneity

Qian Li1, Yanyang Tu1,2

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Normal Platelet Count

Khushboo Dewan, Kiran Agarwal

Galanin is a Novel Epigenetic Silenced Functional Tumor Suppressor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Shengkun Sun1*, Axiang Xu1*, Guoqiang Yang1, Yingduan Cheng2


Selenium Dioxide Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells via Regulating Apoptosis-related Let-7a MicroRNA and Proteins

Sisun Liu1, Jieqi Xiong2, Ling Guo3, Min Xiu1,4, Feng He1,4, Yuanlei Lou5, Fei Guo6,7

Low Expression of Polo‑like Kinase 1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Liver Cancer

Weixia Li1, Kunpeng Liu1, Dechen Lin2, Xin Xu2, Haizhen Lu3, Xinyu Bi4, Mingrong Wang2

Extracorporeal Photopheresis for Steroid‑refractory Chronic Graft‑versus‑host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Runzhe Chen1, Baoan Chen1, Peter Dreger2, Michael Schmitt2, Anita Schmitt2

Glucans and Cancer: Historical Perspective

Petr Sima1, Luca Vannucci1, Vaclav Vetvicka2

Implications of Circadian Rhythm Regulation by microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer

Song Wu1, Andrew Fesler2, Jingfang Ju2

BCL2 Family, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, and Beyond

Haiming Dai1, X. Wei Meng2, Scott H. Kaufmann2

Quantum Dot‑based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications

Li Zhou1, Jingzhe Yan2, Lingxia Tong3, Xuezhe Han4, Xuefeng Wu5, Peng Guo6

CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

Lu Huang1, Weiguo Lv2, Xiaofeng Zhao1

Etiological Trends in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Institutional Study

Varsha Salian, Chethana Dinakar, Pushparaja Shetty, Vidya Ajila

Effect of Irinotecan Combined with Cetuximab on Liver Function in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer with Liver Metastases

Yan Liang1, Yang Li2, Xin Li3, Jianfu Zhao4

The Role of Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer: Challenges for Targeted Therapy, Immune Modulating Treatment, Early Detection, and Less Invasive Operations

Khaled Kyle Wong1, Zhirong Qian2, Yi Le3

Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Natural Products

Weidong Li1,2*, Cihui Chen3*, Zheng Liu2, Baojin Hua1

The Potential of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Focus on Breast Cancer

Mahnaz M. Kazi, Trupti I. Trivedi, Toral P. Kobawala, Nandita R. Ghosh

Imaging‑driven Digital Biomarkers

Enrico Capobianco

Target‑Matching Accuracy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer: An Investigation Based on Four‑Dimensional Digital Human Phantom

Jing Cai1,2, Kate Turner2, Xiao Liang2, W. Paul Segars2,3, Chris R. Kelsey1, David Yoo1, Lei Ren1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2

Downregulation of Death‑associated Protein Kinase 3 and Caspase‑3 Correlate to the Progression and Poor Prognosis of Gliomas

Ye Song, Tianshi Que, Hao Long, Xi’an Zhang, Luxiong Fang, Zhiyong Li, Songtao Qi

Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

Ana Paula Cleto Marolla1, Jaques Waisberg2, Gabriela Tognini Saba2, Demétrius Eduardo Germini2, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal1

Melanoma Antigen Gene Family in the Cancer Immunotherapy

Fengyu Zhu1, Yu Liang1, Demeng Chen2, Yang Li1

Combined Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Collision Tumor Variation

Kaijun Huang1, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios1, Wanhua Yang2, Rajeev L. Balmiki3

Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line (Michigan Cancer Foundation‑7)

Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini

Impact of Age on the Biochemical Failure and Androgen Suppression after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men

Nigel P. Murray1,2, Eduardo Reyes1,3, Nelson Orellana1, Cynthia Fuentealba1, Omar Jacob1

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: 35 Years of a Single Institution’s Experience

Rana I. Mahmood1,2, Mohammed Aldehaim1,3, Fazal Hussain4, Tusneem A. Elhassan4,
Zubeir A. Khan5, Muhammad A. Memon6

Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Therapy: A Discussion

Yeling Ouyang1, Xi Chen2, Chunyun Zhang1, Vichitra Bunyamanop1, Jianfeng Guo3

The Progress in Molecular Biomarkers of Gliomas

Jing Qi1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Correlation between Paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 and its Therapeutic Efficacy and Severe Toxicities in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Shuyao Zhang1*, Muyin Sun2*, Yun Yuan3*, Miaojun Wang4*, Yuqi She1*, Li Zhou5, Congzhu Li5, Chen Chen1, Shengqi Zhang4

Identifying Gaps and Relative Opportunities for Discovering Membrane Proteomic Biomarkers of Triple‑negative Breast Cancer as a Translational Priority

Bhooma Venkatraman

The Molecular Mechanism and Regulatory Pathways of Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Wang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems and Three‑dimensional Cell Cultures in Cancer Treatments and Research

Wenjin Shi1, Ding Weng2,3, Wanting Niu2,3

Choline Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TRAIL in the Treatment of Colorectal Tumors and Overcomes TRAIL Resistance

Juan Carlos Lacal1, Ladislav Andera2

MicroRNA Regulating Metabolic Reprogramming in Tumor Cells: New Tumor Markers

Daniel Otero‑Albiol, Blanca Felipe‑Abrio

Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Genome‑wide Perspective

José M. Santos‑Pereira1, Sandra Muñoz‑Galván2

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide+ Metabolism Biomarkers in Malignant Gliomas

Manuel P. Jiménez‑García, Eva M. Verdugo‑Sivianes, Antonio Lucena‑Cacace

Patient-derived Xenografts as Models for Personalized Medicine Research in Cancer

Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero

Genome‑wide Transcriptome Analysis of Prostate Cancer Tissue Identified Overexpression of Specific Members of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus‑K Family

Behnam Sayanjali1,2

Clinical Utility of Interleukin‑18 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Reecha A. Parikh, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Mahnaz M. Kazi, Nandita R. Ghosh

Current and Future Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced Soft‑tissue Sarcoma beyond Anthracyclines and Ifosfamide

Nadia Hindi1,2, Javier Martin‑Broto1,2

The Genomic Organization and Function of IRX1 in Tumorigenesis and Development

Pengxing Zhang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Stem Cell‑based Approach in Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer Management

Yi‑Zhou Jiang1, Demeng Chen2

Mutation Detection with a Liquid Biopsy 96 Mutation Assay in Cancer Patients and Healthy Donors

Aaron Yun Chen, Glenn D. Braunstein, Megan S. Anselmo, Jair A. Jaboni, Fernando Troy Viloria, Julie A. Neidich, Xiang Li, Anja Kammesheidt

The Application of Estrogen Receptor‑1 Mutations’ Detection through Circulating Tumor DNA in Breast Cancer

Binliang Liu, Yalan Yang, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma

Circulating MicroRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs: Liquid Biomarkers in Thoracic Cancers

Pablo Reclusa1, Anna Valentino1, Rafael Sirera1,2, Martin Frederik Dietrich3, Luis Estuardo Raez3, Christian Rolfo1

Exosomes Biology: Function and Clinical Implications in Lung Cancer

Martin Frederik Dietrich1, Christian Rolfo2, Pablo Reclusa2, Marco Giallombardo2, Anna Valentino2, Luis E. Raez1

Circulating Tumor DNA: A Potential Biomarker from Solid Tumors’ Monitor to Anticancer Therapies

Ting Chen1,2, Rongzhang He1,3, Xinglin Hu1,3,4, Weihao Luo1, Zheng Hu1,3, Jia Li1, Lili Duan1, Yali Xie1,2, Wenna Luo1,2, Tan Tan1,2, Di‑Xian Luo1,2

Novel Molecular Multilevel Targeted Antitumor Agents

Poonam Sonawane1, Young A. Choi1, Hetal Pandya2, Denise M. Herpai1, Izabela Fokt3,
Waldemar Priebe3, Waldemar Debinski1

Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Effects and Clinical Relevance

Pei Liang, Michael Gao Jr.

Stemness‑related Markers in Cancer

Wenxiu Zhao1, Yvonne Li2, Xun Zhang1

Autophagy Regulated by miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Resistance

Andrew Fesler1, Hua Liu1, Ning Wu1,2, Fei Liu3, Peixue Ling3, Jingfang Ju1,3

Gastric Metastases Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: A Brief Literature Review

Simona Gurzu1,2,3, Marius Alexandru Beleaua1, Laura Banias2, Ioan Jung1

Possibility of Specific Expression of the Protein Toxins at the Tumor Site with Tumor‑specialized Promoter

Liyuan Zhou1,2, Yujun Li1,2, Changchen Hu3, Binquan Wang1,2

SKI‑178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models

Jeremy A. Hengst1,2, Taryn E. Dick1,2, Arati Sharma1, Kenichiro Doi3, Shailaja Hegde4, Su‑Fern Tan5, Laura M. Geffert1,2, Todd E. Fox5, Arun K. Sharma1, Dhimant Desai1, Shantu Amin1, Mark Kester5, Thomas P. Loughran5, Robert F. Paulson4, David F. Claxton6, Hong‑Gang Wang3, Jong K. Yun1,2

A T‑cell Engager‑armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to Target the Tumor Stroma

Feng Yu1, Bangxing Hong1, Xiao‑Tong Song1,2,3

Real‑world Experience with Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration‑resistant Prostate Cancer

Yasar Ahmed1, Nemer Osman1, Rizwan Sheikh2, Sarah Picardo1, Geoffrey Watson1

Combination of Interleukin‑11Rα Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‑cells and Programmed Death‑1 Blockade as an Approach to Targeting Osteosarcoma Cells In vitro

Hatel Rana Moonat, Gangxiong Huang, Pooja Dhupkar, Keri Schadler, Nancy Gordon,
Eugenie Kleinerman

Efficacy and Safety of Paclitaxel‑based Therapy and Nonpaclitaxel‑based Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

Tongwei Wu, Xiao Yang, Min An, Wenqin Luo, Danxian Cai, Xiaolong Qi

Motion Estimation of the Liver Based on Deformable Image Registration: A Comparison Between Four‑Dimensional‑Computed Tomography and Four‑Dimensional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xiao Liang1, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2, Yilin Liu1, Brian Czito2, Manisha Palta2, Mustafa Bashir3, Jing Cai1,2

A Feasibility Study of Applying Thermal Imaging to Assist Quality Assurance of High‑Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Xiaofeng Zhu1, Yu Lei1, Dandan Zheng1, Sicong Li1, Vivek Verma1, Mutian Zhang1, Qinghui Zhang1, Xiaoli Tang2, Jun Lian2, Sha X. Chang2, Haijun Song3, Sumin Zhou1, Charles A. Enke1

Role of Exosome microRNA in Breast Cancer

Wang Qu, Ma Fei, Binghe Xu

Recent Progress in Technological Improvement and Biomedical Applications of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas System

Yanlan Li1,2*, Zheng Hu1*, Yufang Yin3, Rongzhang He1, Jian Hu1, Weihao Luo1, Jia Li1, Gebo Wen2, Li Xiao1, Kai Li1, Duanfang Liao4, Di-Xian Luo1,5

The Significance of Nuclear Factor‑Kappa B Signaling Pathway in Glioma: A Review

Xiaoshan Xu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Markerless Four‑Dimensional‑Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection‑Phase Sorting Using Prior Knowledge and Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

Lei Zhang1,2, Yawei Zhang2, You Zhang1,2,3, Wendy B. Harris1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,4, Jing Cai1,4,5, Lei Ren1,2

The Producing Capabilities of Interferon‑g and Interleukin‑10 of Spleen Cells in Primary and Metastasized Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells-implanted Mice

Yasuka Azuma1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Toshihiro Inagaki4, Eiichi Chihara2, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Nobuo Kondoh1

“Eating” Cancer Cells by Blocking CD47 Signaling: Cancer Therapy by Targeting the Innate Immune Checkpoint

Yi‑Rong Xiang, Li Liu

Glycosylation is Involved in Malignant Properties of Cancer Cells

Kazunori Hamamura1, Koichi Furukawa2

Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Era of Precision Medicine

Qing‑Hao Zhu1*, Qing‑Chao Shang1*, Zhi‑Hao Hu1*, Yuan Liu2, Bo Li1, Bo Wang1, An‑Hui Wang1

I‑Kappa‑B Kinase‑epsilon Activates Nuclear Factor‑kappa B and STAT5B and Supports Glioblastoma Growth but Amlexanox Shows Little Therapeutic Potential in These Tumors

Nadège Dubois1, Sharon Berendsen2, Aurélie Henry1,2, Minh Nguyen1, Vincent Bours1,
Pierre Alain Robe1,2

Suppressive Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Interferon‑g‑Producing Capability of Spleen Cells was Specifically Enhanced through Humoral Mediator(s) from Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sq‑1979 Cells In Vitro

Toshihiro Inagaki1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Eiichi Chihara4, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Shinichiro Sumitomo5, Nobuo Kondoh1

An Interplay Between MicroRNA and SOX4 in the Regulation of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Progression

Anjali Geethadevi1, Ansul Sharma2, Manish Kumar Sharma3, Deepak Parashar1

MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Prostate Cancer of African‑American and European‑American Men

Ernest K. Amankwah

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Screening Anticancer Agents

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Taoli Sun3, Shengping Zhang1, Hongyan Zhang1

Panobinostat and Its Combination with 3‑Deazaneplanocin‑A Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit In vitro Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in GOS‑3 Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Javier de la Rosa*, Alejandro Urdiciain*, Juan Jesús Aznar‑Morales, Bárbara Meléndez1,
Juan A. Rey2, Miguel A. Idoate3, Javier S. Castresana

Cancer Stem‑Like Cells Have Cisplatin Resistance and miR‑93 Regulate p21 Expression in Breast Cancer

Akiko Sasaki1, Yuko Tsunoda2, Kanji Furuya3, Hideto Oyamada1, Mayumi Tsuji1, Yuko Udaka1, Masahiro Hosonuma1, Haruna Shirako1, Nana Ichimura1, Yuji Kiuchi1

The Contribution of Hexokinase 2 in Glioma

Hui Liu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang3, Yanyang Tu1

The Mechanism of BMI1 in Regulating Cancer Stemness Maintenance, Metastasis, Chemo‑ and Radiation Resistance

Xiaoshan Xu, Zhen Wang, Nan Liu, Pengxing Zhang, Hui Liu, Jing Qi, Yanyang Tu

A Multisource Adaptive Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Technique for Versatile Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lei Zhang1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,3, Brittany Moore1,2, Silu Han1,2, Jing Cai1,2,4

Senescence and Cancer

Sulin Zeng1,2, Wen H. Shen2, Li Liu1

The “Wild”‑type Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Heterogeneity on Molecule Characteristics and Clinical Features

Yanhua Mou1, Quan Wang1, Bin Li1,2

Retreatment with Cabazitaxel in a Long‑Surviving Patient with Castration‑Resistant Prostate Cancer and Visceral Metastasis

Raquel Luque Caro, Carmen Sánchez Toro, Lucia Ochoa Vallejo

Therapy‑Induced Histopathological Changes in Breast Cancers: The Changing Role of Pathology in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Shazima Sheereen1, Flora D. Lobo1, Waseemoddin Patel2, Shamama Sheereen3,
Abhishek Singh Nayyar4, Mubeen Khan5

Glioma Research in the Era of Medical Big Data

Feiyifan Wang1, Christopher J. Pirozzi2, Xuejun Li1

Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Adenomas: Case Report and Literature Review

Jian‑Hong Zhong1,2, Kang Chen1, Bhavesh K. Ahir3, Qi Huang4, Ye Wu4, Cheng‑Cheng Liao1, Rong‑Rong Jia1, Bang‑De Xiang1,2, Le‑Qun Li1,2

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, Role in Cancer, and Novel Drug Target

Antonio Lucena‑Cacace1,2,3, Amancio Carnero1,2

Enhanced Anticancer Effect by Combination of Proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on Bladder Cancer Cells

Michael Zhang, Kelvin Zheng, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno

Molecular Insights Turning Game for Management of Ependymoma: A Review of Literature

Ajay Sasidharan, Rahul Krishnatry

IDH Gene Mutation in Glioma

Leping Liu1, Xuejun Li1,2

Challenges and Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Report and Literature Review

Gerard Cathal Millen1, Karen A. Manias1,2, Andrew C. Peet1,2, Jenny K. Adamski1

Assessing the Feasibility of Using Deformable Registration for Onboard Multimodality‑Based Target Localization in Radiation Therapy

Ge Ren1,2,3, Yawei Zhang1,2, Lei Ren1,2

Research Advancement in the Tumor Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Qing Du1, Xiaoying Ji2, Guangjing Yin3, Dengxian Wei3, Pengcheng Lin1, Yongchang Lu1,
Yugui Li3, Qiaohong Yang4, Shizhu Liu5, Jinliang Ku5, Wenbin Guan6, Yuanzhi Lu7

Novel Insights into the Role of Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Lei Zhang1, Guoyu Qiu2, Xiaohui Xu2, Yufeng Zhou3, Ruiming Chang4

Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Unusual Presenting Symptoms

Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal

The Prognostic Role of Lactate in Patients Who Achieved Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Dongni Ren1, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1,2

Inhibitory Effect of Hyaluronidase‑4 in a Rat Spinal Cord Hemisection Model

Xipeng Wang1,2, Mitsuteru Yokoyama2, Ping Liu3

Research and Development of Anticancer Agents under the Guidance of Biomarkers

Xiaohui Xu1, Guoyu Qiu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Ruling Jia1, Bo Zhao1

Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Mansoor C. Abdulla

Phosphorylation of BRCA1‑Associated Protein 1 as an Important Mechanism in the Evasion of Tumorigenesis: A Perspective

Guru Prasad Sharma1, Anjali Geethadevi2, Jyotsna Mishra3, G. Anupa4, Kapilesh Jadhav5,
K. S. Vikramdeo6, Deepak Parashar2

Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of Biliary‑Pancreatic System

Ge Zengzheng1, Huang-Sheng Ling2, Ming-Feng Li2, Xu Xiaoyan1, Yao Kai1, Xu Tongzhen3,
Ge Zengyu4, Li Zhou5

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Study the Biological Activity of Anticancer Agent

Guoyu Qiu1, Xiaohui Xu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Huan Yang5

Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Breast Tumors

Steven Lehrer1, Peter H. Rheinstein2

OSMCC: An Online Survival Analysis Tool for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai1, Qiang Wang1, Xiaoxiao Sun1, Yifang Dang1, JiaJia Lv1,2, Junfang Xin1, Wan Zhu3, Yongqiang Li1, Xinying Ji1, Xiangqian Guo1

Protective Activity of Selenium against 5‑Fluorouracil‑Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Beauty Tokoni Amgbare

Advances on the Components of Fibrinolytic System in Malignant Tumors

Zengzheng Ge1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Zengyu Ge2, Shaopeng Zhou3, Xiulin Li1, Kai Yao1, Lan Deng4

A Patient with Persistent Foot Swelling after Ankle Sprain: B‑Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mimicking Soft‑tissue Sarcoma

Crystal R. Montgomery‑Goecker1, Andrew A. Martin2, Charles F. Timmons3, Dinesh Rakheja3, Veena Rajaram3, Hung S. Luu3

Coenzyme Q10 and Resveratrol Abrogate Paclitaxel‑Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Loritta Wasini Harris

Progress in Clinical Follow‑up Study of Dendritic Cells Combined with Cytokine‑Induced Killer for Stomach Cancer

Ling Wang1,2, Run Wan1,2, Cong Chen1,2, Ruiliang Su1,2, Yumin Li1,2

Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy as the Initial Manifestation in Carcinoma of Cervix

Priyanka Priyaarshini1, Tapan Kumar Sahoo2

ABO Typing Error Resolution and Transfusion Support in a Case of an Acute Leukemia Patient Showing Loss of Antigen Expression

Debasish Mishra1, Gopal Krushna Ray1, Smita Mahapatra2, Pankaj Parida2

Protein Disulfide Isomerase A3: A Potential Regulatory Factor of Colon Epithelial Cells

Yang Li1, Zhenfan Huang2, Haiping Jiang3

Clinicopathological Association of p16 and its Impact on Outcome of Chemoradiation in Head‑and‑Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Patients in North‑East India

Srigopal Mohanty1, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi2, Nithin Raj Daniel3, Dulasi Raman Ponna4,
Ph. Madhubala Devi5, Laishram Jaichand Singh2

Potential Inhibitor for 2019‑Novel Coronaviruses in Drug Development

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Lei Zhang3, Lingxue Zhuang4, Wutang Jing5, Lupeng Ji6, Guoyu Qiu1

Best‑Match Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Mixed Autoantibodies

Debasish Mishra1, Dibyajyoti Sahoo1, Smita Mahapatra2, Ashutosh Panigrahi3

Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Pheochromocytoma

Nadeema Rafiq1, Tauseef Nabi2, Sajad Ahmad Dar3, Shahnawaz Rasool4

Comparison of Histopathological Grading and Staging of Breast Cancer with p53‑Positive and Transforming Growth Factor‑Beta Receptor 2‑Negative Immunohistochemical Marker Expression Cases

Palash Kumar Mandal1, Anindya Adhikari2, Subir Biswas3, Amita Giri4, Arnab Gupta5,
Arindam Bhattacharya6

Chemical Compositions and Antiproliferative Effect of Essential Oil of Asafoetida on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line and Female Wistar Rats

Seyyed Majid Bagheri1,2, Davood Javidmehr3, Mohammad Ghaffari1, Ehsan Ghoderti‑Shatori4

Cyclooxygenase‑2 Contributes to Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting an Immunosuppressive Environment

Mun Kyoung Kim1, Aidin Iravani2, Matthew K. Topham2,3

Potential role of CircMET as A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Yan Liu1,2,3,4#, Chen Cui1,2,3,4#, Jidong Liu1,2,3,4, Peng Lin1,2,3,4,Kai Liang1,2,3,4, Peng Su5, Xinguo Hou1,2,3,4, Chuan Wang1,2,3,4, Jinbo Liu1,2,3,4, Bo Chen6, Hong Lai1,2,3,4, Yujing Sun1,2,3,4* and Li Chen 1,2,3,4*

Cuproptosis-related Genes in Glioblastoma as Potential Therapeutic Targets

Zhiyu Xia1,2, Haotian Tian1, Lei Shu1,2, Guozhang Tang3, Zhenyu Han4, Yangchun Hu1*, Xingliang Dai1*

Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments by Porous Inorganic Nanocarriers

Jianfeng Xu1,2, Hanwen Zhang1,2, Xiaohui Song1,2, Yangong Zheng3, Qingning Li1,2,4*

Delayed (20 Years) post-surgical Esophageal Metastasis of Breast Cancer - A Case Report

Bowen Hu1#, Lingyu Du2#, Hongya Xie1, Jun Ma1, Yong Yang1*, Jie Tan2*

Subtyping of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Its Clinical Meaning

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai, Zhendong Lu, Fengling Wang, Muhammad Usman Akbar, Saadullah Khattak, Muhammad Badar, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Longxiang Xie, Yongqiang Li, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo

Construction of Glioma Prognosis Model and Exploration of Related Regulatory Mechanism of Model Gene

Suxia Hu, Abdusemer Reyimu, Wubi Zhou, Xiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Xia Chen, Weiqiang Li, Jingjing Dai

Resection of Bladder Tumors at the Ureteral Orifice Using a Hook Plasma Electrode: A Case Report

Jun Li, Ziyong Wang, Qilin Wang

Structural Characterization and Bioactivity for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides

Jinghua Qi1,2,  Hangping Chen3,Huaqing Lin2,4,Hongyuan Chen1,2,5* and Wen Rui2,3,5,6*

The Role of IL-22 in the Prevention of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Liver Injury

Xingli Qi1,2, Huaqing Lin2,3, Wen Rui2,3,4,5 and Hongyuan Chen1,2,3

RBM15 and YTHDF3 as Positive Prognostic Predictors in ESCC: A Bioinformatic Analysis Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)

Yulou Luo1, Lan Chen2, Ximing Qu3, Na Yi3, Jihua Ran4, Yan Chen3,5*

Mining and Analysis of Adverse Drug Reaction Signals Induced by Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Based on the FAERS Database

Xiumin Zhang1,2#, Xinyue Lin1,3#, Siman Su1,3#, Wei He3, Yuying Huang4, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xiaoshan Chen3, Jialin Zhong3, Chong Liu3, Wang Chen3, Chengcheng Xu3, Ping Yang5, Man Zhang5, Yanli Lei5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*

Advancements in Immunotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

Min Jiang1#, Rui Zheng1#, Ling Shao1, Ning Yao2, Zhengmao Lu1*

Tumor Regression after COVID-19 Infection in Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: A Case Report

Qiaoxin Lin1, Bin Liang1, Yangyang Li2, Ling Tian3*, Dianna Gu1*

Mining and Analysis of Adverse Events of BRAF Inhibitors Based on FDA Reporting System

Silan Peng1,2#, Danling Zheng1,3#, Yanli Lei4#, Wang Chen3, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xinyue Lin1, Xiaoshan Chen3, Wei He3, Li Li3, Qiuzhen Zhang5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*

Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Fever, Anemia, Hypoproteinemia: A Rare and Strange Case Report and Literature Review

Zhenghang Li1, Yuxian Wei1*

Construction of Cuproptosis-Related LncRNA Signature as a Prognostic Model Associated with Immune Microenvironment for Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Jiyao Yu1#, Shukai Zhang2#, Qingwen Ran3, Xuemei Li4,5,6*

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