Cancer Translational Medicine

Original Research | Open Access

Vol.6 (2022) | Issue-1 | Page No: 9-15

Microcirculation Specialist Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Superficial Varicose Veins of Lower Limbs

Wang Lei1, Zheng Yuehong1*


1. Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, China

*Corresponding Author

Address for correspondence: Zheng Yuehong, Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, China, email:

Important Dates  

Date of Submission:   17-Jan-2022

Date of Acceptance:   02-Mar-2022

Date of Publication:   30-Mar-2022


Superficial varicosis of lower limbs is a common clinical manifestation, with the most common being varicosis of the great saphenous vein, caused by various reasons,. It is either a clinical manifestation or a disease that affects the quality of life of patients to a certain extent. The causes of superficial varicosis of lower limbs consist of congenital venous valve dysfunction, primary venous valve insufficiency of lower extremities or secondary deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities, iliac vein entrapment syndrome, etc. The superficial varicosis of lower limbs caused by secondary causes needs to focus on the treatment of primary diseases, and its diagnosis and treatment process is special, so it is not discussed in this paper. The normative evaluation and treatment of superficial varicosis of lower limbs will be beneficial to cut short the course of the disease and improve the prognosis. At present, there are different theories about the pathogenesis of superficial varicosis of lower limbs. The relatively consistent agreements on the theory include venous pressure elevation, valvular regurgitation, and superficial venous lumen dilatation caused by venous valve dysfunction of axial veins, resulting in venous tortuous and swelling, exudation into the surrounding subcutaneous tissue, and then triggering a series of clinical manifestations.


At present, the authoritative international methods and criteria for evaluating the severity of chronic venous disease and its therapeutic effect mainly include CEAP classification and venous clinical severity score (VCSS). With the common applications of artificial intelligence and image recognition processing technology in clinical practice and continuous updating of the disease concept, a new classification method has been recognized in the medical industry,[1] which is used for more rational differentiation of clinical stages and beneficial to its standardized treatment. Rutherford presented VCSS, including pain, edema, venous claudication, pigmentation, lipid scleroderma, ulceration, ulcer diameter, disease stage, recurrence, and number of 10 assessment items, with every single item of 0-3 points and the total score of 0-30 points. A low score indicates that the condition is mild. The higher the score is, the worse the condition will be. The scoring system is better suitable for more severe varicosis of lower limbs, and it has been revised many times (Table 1[2]).


[ArticleTable 73]


2.1 Medical record collection

Ask patients about the history of varicosis of lower limbs, especially if there is a history of secondary varicosis of lower limbs. The symptoms in the early stage are relatively mild; mainly including limb soreness, distention, discomforts, and pain of the affected limb. The later symptoms are mainly caused by various complications, such as skin changes in the ankle boot, ulceration, pain along the veins caused by superficial thrombotic vasculitis, bleeding of varicose veins, etc.

2.2 Physical examination

The main signs of superficial varicosis of lower limbs include vermiform protuberance, dilatation, and detour in the superficial veins of lower limbs, as well as complication-related skin changes and ulceration in the ankle boot. A careful examination of relevant signs can facilitate an accurate assessment of the condition.

Traditional physical examination methods include the great saphenous valve function test (Trendelenburg test), the deep vein patency test (Perthes test), and perforating vein valve function test (Pratt test). This kind of examination method is relatively rough. They can only be used for preliminary evaluation of the venous function of lower limbs, not for diagnostic purposes. It has been rarely used clinically.

2.3 Auxiliary examination

2.3.1 Imaging examination

(1) Color Doppler vascular ultrasound: Vascular ultrasound examination can simultaneously identify the deep and superficial vein function of lower limbs and the existence of regurgitation or thrombosis. The examination is safe, non-invasive, simple, and quick, with high accuracy. Breath-holding test (Valsalva), squeeze test, etc. can be performed during the operation in order to further clarify the presence of regurgitation in the great saphenous vein. The examination findings are accurate and reliable providing direct guidance and assistance for operation. It is the first auxiliary examination method for the diagnosis of varicosis of lower limbs currently.

(2) Digital subtraction angiography anterograde/retrograde venography: With the development of interventional technology, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is becoming more and more widely used. Anterograde venography is regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of varicosis of lower limbs. Since DSA is an invasive examination, the routine diagnosis is still dominated by vascular color ultrasound that is clinically acceptable. However, in some cases, such as congenital venous malformation of lower limbs, complex communicating vein and deep vein dysfunction, iliac vein entrapment syndrome, or stenosis, the DSA has advantages such as intuition and accuracy, and cannot be replaced.

(3) Computed tomography venography (CTV)/magnetic resonance venography, (MRV): CTV/MRV can be used in the diagnosis of venous obstructive disease and congenital venous disease. The scope of application is similar to venography, but the accuracy is not as good as venography. It is particularly preferred to diagnose tumor lesions or exogenous compression.

2.3.2 Laboratory examination

When diagnosing varicosis of lower limbs, there are few laboratory tests to rely on. It mainly assists the diagnosis of related complications. For example, blood routine, C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer tests, and other assays for markers of inflammation and thrombosis could be added for diagnosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis.


In recent years, the importance of drug therapy has gained increasing attention and a comprehensive treatment including drug therapy with pressure therapy and/or operation has become a new trend. The comprehensive treatment regimen has a significant effect on restraining and relieving the pathophysiological changes of superficial varicosis of lower limbs. Meanwhile, it also plays an important role in consolidating the curative effect of the operation.

3.1 Medicine treatment

The treatment drugs for superficial varicosis of lower limbs mainly consist of intravenous active drugs, including flavonoids, aescigenin, coumarins, etc., which can be used to relieve the patients' clinical manifestations of lower extremity heaviness, uncomfortable soreness and distension, pain, and edema. The main mechanisms of action consist of: (1) reducing the capillary permeability,anti-inflammation, and anti-exudation; (2) protecting veins and improving vein elasticity and tension; (3) promoting venous return and lymphatic return and improving micro-circulation; and (4) anti-oxygen free radical and protecting damaged tissue cells. Other drugs include other types of vasoactive drugs, such as calcium dobesilate and pentoxifylline, etc.; anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs, such as fondaparinux sodium injection (Arixtra), etc.; prostaglandins such as prostaglandin E1; traditional Chinese medicine for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glycocalyx and endangium-protective drugs such as sulodexide (vessel Due), etc.

Drug treatment can effectively alleviate the clinical symptoms and signs of patients. Preoperative use can mitigate the need for operation and delay the disease progression. Postoperative use can prevent early complications and consolidate surgical efficacy. It can be used in all stages of varicosity.[3],[4]

3.2 Pressure therapy

Pressure therapy of superficial varicosis of lower limbs includes elastic bandage, graduated elastic compression and intermittent pneumatic compression, etc., which will gradually reduce the pressure from the distal to proximal lower extremities, allowing the superficial vein to completely wilt, and promote the venous reflux through the deep veins. Pressure therapy can not only be used for the treatment of varicose veins and their complications but also serves as an auxiliary measure after surgical treatment, especially after a minimally invasive operation. It is suitable for all stages of varicosity.[5],[6]

Pressure therapy should meet the following requirements: 1) to relieve the condition and degree of pathological blood stasis and contain the pathological high venous pressure while resting and moving. 2) to promote the excessive water reabsorption in edema tissues, 3) to relieve the burden of the venous and lymphatic system, and 4) to reduce the inflammatory response caused by long-term edema.

3.3 Treatment with injecting hardeners

3.3.1 Types of hardeners

The sclerosing agents for the treatment of superficial varicosis of lower limbs can be divided into two categories based on their chemical structure; (1) Surface activators or decontamination agents, namely foam hardeners: This kind of material directly destroys venous endothelial cells and offers the benefits of a lower dosage, a larger intimal contact surface, and a longer contact time. Therefore, it is widely used at present. (2) Chemical irritants or hypertonic solution: Both of them are liquid sclerosing agents, which act directly on the endothelial cells to make them necrotic. Because of many adverse reactions, they are rarely used in clinics at present.[7],[8]

3.3.2 Indications

The sclerosing agent injection therapy for superficial varicosis of lower limbs is to use the sclerosing agents to inject into the venous cavity, stimulate the intima of the vein to make it adhere resulting in fibrosis and thus eliminate or alleviate local venous high pressure. It is recommended for all applications to all types of patients with varicosis of lower limbs. It can be used alone for mild varicosis. Generally used as the adjuvant treatment of operation, the treatment of postoperative residual varicose veins is particularly appropriate, especially for capillary and reticular vein dilatation, small varicose veins, and varicose veins with a large diameter of non-saphenous vein trunk. It can also be applied to patients who cannot tolerate the operation.

3.3.3 Contraindications

Absolute contraindications include allergy to hardeners; history of collagen diseases; recent history of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism with local or systemic infection; bed-ridden patients; and patients with severe ischemia of lower extremities.

Relative contraindications include Allergic constitution, early pregnancy and lactation, Latex allergy, hypercoagulability (S protein deficiency, etc.), history of recurrence of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, diabetic microcirculatory lesions, and uncontrolled hypertension (such as pheochromocytoma).

3.3.4 Precautions

Each injection site with the hardener needs to be locally filled, and the dose depends on the diameter of the vein. It should be injected slowly to avoid excessive resistance. After each injection site is finished, the assistant shall use the dry sterilized cotton balls to press the needle hole tightly while pulling the needle out quickly. The total amount of injection foam is generally not more than 10 ml. The dosage can be increased appropriately after evaluating the risk and benefit. After completing the treatment at all injection sites, the patient's affected limb shall be immediately given a pressure bandage.


Currently, surgical treatment is an effective method for the treatment of varicosis of lower limbs on stage C2 or above. Before the operation, the patient should be comprehensively evaluated to determine the severity, location, and characteristics of the lesion, and thus to determine whether there are surgical indications and appropriate surgical methods to be selected. The surgical treatments of superficial varicosis of lower limbs are mainly as follows.

4.1 Traditional stripping theory of great saphenous vein

This is a traditional operation, which fundamentally eliminates the reflux caused by the insufficiency of the great saphenous valve and it is also a relatively radical operation approach. Disadvantages include multiple incisions and great trauma. This procedure has many approaches including anterograde stripping, retrograde stripping, anterograde + retrograde stripping, and hemodynamics-based outpatient operation.[8],[9],[10]

The traditional and modified procedures can be performed with minimal incisions minimizing the trauma. Endovenous minimally-invasive operation (or a new stripping catheter) also tends to be accompanied by small point incisions to treat these cystic dilations at the root of the great saphenous vein and large distorted clusters under the knee. Based on the economic development, the modified point incision procedure technique of traditional high ligation of great saphenous vein + stripping is worth popularizing.

4.2 Endovenous laser ablation

Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is a new minimally invasive technique for the treatment of varicosis of lower limbs that have emerged at the beginning of this century. Principle: A light-conducting fiber is imbedded in the vein. The laser will be converted into heat energy through the light-conducting fiber, acting on the venous intima and causing thermal damage. The collagen of the venous intima is shrunken resulting in fibrosis and blocking the varicose vein. During the laser ablation operation (including radiofrequency and other thermal effect therapy), it is often necessary to inject the tumescent anesthetic between the deep and superficial fascia adjacent to the vein. The concept of anesthetic fluid was first proposed in China in 2005. A good tumescent anesthetic can achieve the purpose of local analgesia, compression of vein cavity, and avoid skin burn simultaneously. The suitable proportion of tumescent anesthetic solution should meet certain requirements.[11] Effect of EVLA is equivalent to high ligation of great saphenous vein + stripping. This method is not only easy, minimally invasive, aesthetic, and economical, but also has other advantages such as short hospital stay, quick rehabilitation, and available outpatient operation. The disadvantages are that the penetration of laser may cause vein breaking, ecchymosis, saphenous nerve damage, numbness, tingling, etc. At present, a new loop fiber optic gyroscope, double-loop, even multi-loop fiber optic gyroscope can help to reduce the power and thus reduce the damage.[12] EVLA is welcomed and widely used clinically because of its safety, efficiency, low recurrence rate, and economic benefits.

4.3 Radiofrequency ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (rFA) generates heat through radiofrequency generators and dedicated electrode catheters, causing hyperthermia of local tissue in contact with the emitter electrode within a limited range, resulting in vascular endothelial damage, contraction of collagen fibers in the venous intima until the vein is closed and finally fibrosed. rFA is used to treat the varicose veins in the lower extremities which can be performed by small incision or puncture. However, it needs color ultrasound guidance and localization. rFA, which is also a new technology that emerged at the beginning of this century, has the advantages of minimal invasion, a short length of hospital stay, and quick rehabilitation. Its tissue penetration is weak, and the damage to surrounding tissues is relatively small.[13] rFA can only handle the proximal main trunk. The distal main trunk and its branches need to be treated separately. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of living standards, technology has been favored by some specialists. Nevertheless, clinical use is limited because of the expensive supporting facilities.

4.4 Transilluminated powered phlebectomy

Transilluminated powered phlebectomy (TIPP) adopts the superficial varicose vein removal system by making the cold light source enter into the subcutaneous superficial fascia layer; expanding the space through the infusion of tumescent fluid; utilizing the skin transmittance to make the tortuous superficial veins direct display; and using the rotary knife to accurately slice the targeted varicose vein and sucking it out. Experienced surgeons can even use no light source to achieve the goal of treatment.[14] This method is suitable for the large area of varicose vein clusters. In view of the lymphatic and sensory nerve trauma caused by phlebectomy, there is a certain requirement for the surgeon. This kind of operation only manages the varicose branches and the trunk needs to be dealt with separately. Moreover, because of the problem of consumables charge, the clinical popularization and application are limited.

4.5 Endovenous microwave therapy

Endovenous microwave therapy is a new method for the treatment of superficial varicosis of lower limbs. The principle is to make the venous intimal fibrosis contract through thermal energy thereby facilitating the atresia of the lumen. Due to the limitation of charging the microwave catheter, it fails to be widely popularized.

4.6 Endovenous electrocoagulation therapy

Catheter electrocoagulation promotes intima adhesion, makes lumen close, and blocks varicose vein blood flowing back through electrically burning venous intima, which can achieve the same effect as removing blood vessels. However, because the power control of electrocoagulation is difficult to overcome, the use of disinfection electrocoagulation catheters in veins is limited by relevant regulations. Therefore, there are few users at present.

4.7 Endoscope-assisted perforating venous dissection

Endoscope-assisted leg perforating venous dissection emerged at the end of the last century. The perforating vein is ligated using a special instrument under the endoscope in order to block the reflux of the pathological perforating vein. The need for surgical incisions and special equipment increases the complexity of the operation. Moreover, it does not reduce surgical trauma. In addition, there are other more simple and effective procedures and this method is rarely used at present.

4.8 Mechanized stripping

Two types of mechanized ablations have emerged recently. (1) Mechanical injection of foam hardener: The intima of the main trunk of the great saphenous vein is roughened and rendered spasmodic by mechanical devices. In addition, only a small amount of foam hardener can be injected to close the trunk and its branches. (2) A mechanical device directly injects cyanoacrylate (medical super glue) into the main trunk of the great saphenous vein. This kind of treatment completely changes the damaging effects of thermal ablation in principle and makes the postoperative local reaction decrease significantly, which is one of the developing directions of minimally invasive treatment of varicose veins in the lower extremities in the future. At present, these two types of mechanical devices have their corresponding products in Western countries, the promotion of which is rapid and the related work is also being carried out here in China.

For the non-surgical and surgical treatment of superficial varicosis of lower limbs, all hospitals should choose them according to the patient's condition and the operator’s expertise. Non-surgical treatment is an effective supplement to surgical treatment, which can run through the whole course of treatment procedure. High ligation of great saphenous vein + stripping is still an important surgical method for treating superficial varicosis of lower limbs in China. In recent years, the concept of minimally invasive treatment has been widely recognized in the industry. Besides, the effect of minimally invasive treatment is equivalent to the high ligation of great saphenous vein + stripping treatment. There are many minimally-invasive methods for the treatment of superficial varicosis of lower limbs, and they should be applied in accordance with each patient. According to the patient's request and their economic condition, it would be better to choose "123 Treatment Regimen": That is, an individualized reasonable choice of one or two or three methods among three regimens including endovenous thermal ablation, point stripping, and foam sclerosing agents, striving to achieve more minimally invasive, more beautiful aesthetic and more radical treatment.

The treatment of superficial varicosis of lower limbs is a procedure of comprehensive treatment, but also a complex process. This consensus still has shortcomings that need to be validated in time as well as practice, and need further in-depth studies to provide more sufficient evidence. Therefore, this consensus will serve as a reference tool for the majority of medical staff. We hope to bring help and convenience for the work of everyone and we hope to promote the standardization of the diagnosis of superficial varicosis of lower limbs in China.






 Bian Ce (Special Medical Center of Rocket Army of the People's Liberation Army), Chen Quan (Gansu People's Hospital ), Cui Jiasen (Huadong Hospital, Fudan University), Deng Hongru (Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University), Fang Zixing (Chengdu Chuanshu Vascular Disease Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan), Hao Yingxue (The First Hospital Affiliated to AMU), Huang Xiaojin (Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University ), Ji Weibing (No. 4 Hospital of Haimen, Jiangsu), Jiang Peng (Beijing Jishutan hospital), Li Zhaohui (The First People's Hospital of Yibin, Sichuan), Liu Jianlong (Beijing Jishutan hospital), Liu Zhili (Beijing Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences), Lu Shaoying (The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University), Mei Jiacai (Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital of Jiaotong University), Mou Dakun (Shanghai Changhang Hospital), Mou Detang (The People's Hospital of Shouguang, Shandong), Pan Lisheng (Anqing Municipal Hospital, Anhui), Peng Junlu (The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University), Qian Dongwei (Peripheral Vascular Disease Hospital of Chengdu, Sichuan), Qian Shuixian (The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University), Ren Buyuan (Inner Mongolia People's Hospital ), Sun Fangguo (Shandong Dr. Jumai's Group Management Co., Ltd. ), Sun Shunji (Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical College ), Wang Haiyang (The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University ), Wang Xiaotian (First Affiliated Hospital of USTC), Wang Yonggao (The Fist Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University), Ye Wei (Beijing Union Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences ), Ye Zhidong (Beijing China-Japan Friendship Hospital ), Zhang Jiefeng (Weifang People's Hospital, Shandong), Zhang Wangde (Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University), Zhang Xianlan (Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University), Zhao Haiguang (Huadong Hospital of Fudan University), Zheng Yuehong (Beijing Union Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences ), Zhi Kangkang (Second Affiliated Hospital of Naval Military Medical University ), Zhou Jianhua (Dali Autonomous Prefecture People's Hospital, Yunnan), Zhou Zhaoxiong (Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine), Zhu Guoxian (Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, Guangdong), Zhu Yuefeng (Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine).




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Huijun Zuo, Jieqi Xiong, Hongwei Chen, Sisun Liu, Qiaoying Gong, Fei Guo

Unusual Clinical Presentation of a Rare Type of Breast Malignancy: A Case Report and a Short Review of Literature

Nadeesha J. Nawarathna1, Navam R. Kumarasinghe1, Palitha Rathnayake2,
Ranjith J. K. Seneviratne1

Sweet’s Syndrome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t (9:22)

Khushboo Dewan, Shailaja Shukla

Analysis of the Correlationship between Prostate Specific Antigen Related Variables and Risk Factor in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma

Daoyuan Wang1, Tiejun Yang2, Yongqiang Zou1, Xinqiang Yang1

Recent Progress in Genetic and Epigenetic Profile of Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Zhengxi He1, Bin Li1,2

Strategies for Management of Spinal Metastases: A Comprehensive Review

Zhantao Deng, Bin Xu, Jiewen Jin, Jianning Zhao, Haidong Xu

Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

Xia Mao, Yanqiong Zhang, Na Lin

Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yupeng Lei1, Hongxia Chen2, Pi Liu1, Xiaodong Zhou1

Expression Characteristics of miR‑10b in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Gang Li, Yunteng Zhao, Jianqi Wang, Haoran Huang, Mengwen Zhang

An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

Zonggao Shi, M. Sharon Stack

Promoter Methylated Tumor Suppressor Genes in Glioma

Yingduan Cheng1, Yanyang Tu2, Pei Liang3

Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

Chenyang Liu1*, Qian Qian2*, Shen Geng1, Wenkui Sun1, Yi Shi1

Functional Perspective and Implications of Gene Expression by Noncoding RNAs

Xiaoshuang Yan1, Huanyu Xu2, Zhonghai Yan3

Expression of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Multiple Myeloma Patients after Treatment with the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib

James Joseph Driscoll

miR‑505 Downregulates 6‑Phosphofructo‑2‑Kinase/ Fructose‑2,6‑Biphosphatase 4 to Promote Cell Death in Glioblastoma

Esther H. Chung, Hongwei Yang, Hongyan Xing, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson

Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosing Bone Tumors

Sonal Mahajan1, Akash Arvind Saoji2, Anil Agrawal1

Histone H2A and H2B Deubiquitinase in Developmental Disease and Cancer

Demeng Chen1, Caifeng Dai2, Yizhou Jiang3

Genetic Characteristics of Glioblastoma: Clinical Implications of Heterogeneity

Qian Li1, Yanyang Tu1,2

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Normal Platelet Count

Khushboo Dewan, Kiran Agarwal

Galanin is a Novel Epigenetic Silenced Functional Tumor Suppressor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Shengkun Sun1*, Axiang Xu1*, Guoqiang Yang1, Yingduan Cheng2


Selenium Dioxide Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells via Regulating Apoptosis-related Let-7a MicroRNA and Proteins

Sisun Liu1, Jieqi Xiong2, Ling Guo3, Min Xiu1,4, Feng He1,4, Yuanlei Lou5, Fei Guo6,7

Low Expression of Polo‑like Kinase 1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Liver Cancer

Weixia Li1, Kunpeng Liu1, Dechen Lin2, Xin Xu2, Haizhen Lu3, Xinyu Bi4, Mingrong Wang2

Extracorporeal Photopheresis for Steroid‑refractory Chronic Graft‑versus‑host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Runzhe Chen1, Baoan Chen1, Peter Dreger2, Michael Schmitt2, Anita Schmitt2

Glucans and Cancer: Historical Perspective

Petr Sima1, Luca Vannucci1, Vaclav Vetvicka2

Implications of Circadian Rhythm Regulation by microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer

Song Wu1, Andrew Fesler2, Jingfang Ju2

BCL2 Family, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, and Beyond

Haiming Dai1, X. Wei Meng2, Scott H. Kaufmann2

Quantum Dot‑based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications

Li Zhou1, Jingzhe Yan2, Lingxia Tong3, Xuezhe Han4, Xuefeng Wu5, Peng Guo6

CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

Lu Huang1, Weiguo Lv2, Xiaofeng Zhao1

Etiological Trends in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Institutional Study

Varsha Salian, Chethana Dinakar, Pushparaja Shetty, Vidya Ajila

Effect of Irinotecan Combined with Cetuximab on Liver Function in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer with Liver Metastases

Yan Liang1, Yang Li2, Xin Li3, Jianfu Zhao4

The Role of Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer: Challenges for Targeted Therapy, Immune Modulating Treatment, Early Detection, and Less Invasive Operations

Khaled Kyle Wong1, Zhirong Qian2, Yi Le3

Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Natural Products

Weidong Li1,2*, Cihui Chen3*, Zheng Liu2, Baojin Hua1

The Potential of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Focus on Breast Cancer

Mahnaz M. Kazi, Trupti I. Trivedi, Toral P. Kobawala, Nandita R. Ghosh

Imaging‑driven Digital Biomarkers

Enrico Capobianco

Target‑Matching Accuracy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer: An Investigation Based on Four‑Dimensional Digital Human Phantom

Jing Cai1,2, Kate Turner2, Xiao Liang2, W. Paul Segars2,3, Chris R. Kelsey1, David Yoo1, Lei Ren1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2

Downregulation of Death‑associated Protein Kinase 3 and Caspase‑3 Correlate to the Progression and Poor Prognosis of Gliomas

Ye Song, Tianshi Que, Hao Long, Xi’an Zhang, Luxiong Fang, Zhiyong Li, Songtao Qi

Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

Ana Paula Cleto Marolla1, Jaques Waisberg2, Gabriela Tognini Saba2, Demétrius Eduardo Germini2, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal1

Melanoma Antigen Gene Family in the Cancer Immunotherapy

Fengyu Zhu1, Yu Liang1, Demeng Chen2, Yang Li1

Combined Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Collision Tumor Variation

Kaijun Huang1, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios1, Wanhua Yang2, Rajeev L. Balmiki3

Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line (Michigan Cancer Foundation‑7)

Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini

Impact of Age on the Biochemical Failure and Androgen Suppression after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men

Nigel P. Murray1,2, Eduardo Reyes1,3, Nelson Orellana1, Cynthia Fuentealba1, Omar Jacob1

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: 35 Years of a Single Institution’s Experience

Rana I. Mahmood1,2, Mohammed Aldehaim1,3, Fazal Hussain4, Tusneem A. Elhassan4,
Zubeir A. Khan5, Muhammad A. Memon6

Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Therapy: A Discussion

Yeling Ouyang1, Xi Chen2, Chunyun Zhang1, Vichitra Bunyamanop1, Jianfeng Guo3

The Progress in Molecular Biomarkers of Gliomas

Jing Qi1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Correlation between Paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 and its Therapeutic Efficacy and Severe Toxicities in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Shuyao Zhang1*, Muyin Sun2*, Yun Yuan3*, Miaojun Wang4*, Yuqi She1*, Li Zhou5, Congzhu Li5, Chen Chen1, Shengqi Zhang4

Identifying Gaps and Relative Opportunities for Discovering Membrane Proteomic Biomarkers of Triple‑negative Breast Cancer as a Translational Priority

Bhooma Venkatraman

The Molecular Mechanism and Regulatory Pathways of Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Wang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems and Three‑dimensional Cell Cultures in Cancer Treatments and Research

Wenjin Shi1, Ding Weng2,3, Wanting Niu2,3

Choline Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TRAIL in the Treatment of Colorectal Tumors and Overcomes TRAIL Resistance

Juan Carlos Lacal1, Ladislav Andera2

MicroRNA Regulating Metabolic Reprogramming in Tumor Cells: New Tumor Markers

Daniel Otero‑Albiol, Blanca Felipe‑Abrio

Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Genome‑wide Perspective

José M. Santos‑Pereira1, Sandra Muñoz‑Galván2

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide+ Metabolism Biomarkers in Malignant Gliomas

Manuel P. Jiménez‑García, Eva M. Verdugo‑Sivianes, Antonio Lucena‑Cacace

Patient-derived Xenografts as Models for Personalized Medicine Research in Cancer

Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero

Genome‑wide Transcriptome Analysis of Prostate Cancer Tissue Identified Overexpression of Specific Members of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus‑K Family

Behnam Sayanjali1,2

Clinical Utility of Interleukin‑18 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Reecha A. Parikh, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Mahnaz M. Kazi, Nandita R. Ghosh

Current and Future Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced Soft‑tissue Sarcoma beyond Anthracyclines and Ifosfamide

Nadia Hindi1,2, Javier Martin‑Broto1,2

The Genomic Organization and Function of IRX1 in Tumorigenesis and Development

Pengxing Zhang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Stem Cell‑based Approach in Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer Management

Yi‑Zhou Jiang1, Demeng Chen2

Mutation Detection with a Liquid Biopsy 96 Mutation Assay in Cancer Patients and Healthy Donors

Aaron Yun Chen, Glenn D. Braunstein, Megan S. Anselmo, Jair A. Jaboni, Fernando Troy Viloria, Julie A. Neidich, Xiang Li, Anja Kammesheidt

The Application of Estrogen Receptor‑1 Mutations’ Detection through Circulating Tumor DNA in Breast Cancer

Binliang Liu, Yalan Yang, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma

Circulating MicroRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs: Liquid Biomarkers in Thoracic Cancers

Pablo Reclusa1, Anna Valentino1, Rafael Sirera1,2, Martin Frederik Dietrich3, Luis Estuardo Raez3, Christian Rolfo1

Exosomes Biology: Function and Clinical Implications in Lung Cancer

Martin Frederik Dietrich1, Christian Rolfo2, Pablo Reclusa2, Marco Giallombardo2, Anna Valentino2, Luis E. Raez1

Circulating Tumor DNA: A Potential Biomarker from Solid Tumors’ Monitor to Anticancer Therapies

Ting Chen1,2, Rongzhang He1,3, Xinglin Hu1,3,4, Weihao Luo1, Zheng Hu1,3, Jia Li1, Lili Duan1, Yali Xie1,2, Wenna Luo1,2, Tan Tan1,2, Di‑Xian Luo1,2

Novel Molecular Multilevel Targeted Antitumor Agents

Poonam Sonawane1, Young A. Choi1, Hetal Pandya2, Denise M. Herpai1, Izabela Fokt3,
Waldemar Priebe3, Waldemar Debinski1

Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Effects and Clinical Relevance

Pei Liang, Michael Gao Jr.

Stemness‑related Markers in Cancer

Wenxiu Zhao1, Yvonne Li2, Xun Zhang1

Autophagy Regulated by miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Resistance

Andrew Fesler1, Hua Liu1, Ning Wu1,2, Fei Liu3, Peixue Ling3, Jingfang Ju1,3

Gastric Metastases Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: A Brief Literature Review

Simona Gurzu1,2,3, Marius Alexandru Beleaua1, Laura Banias2, Ioan Jung1

Possibility of Specific Expression of the Protein Toxins at the Tumor Site with Tumor‑specialized Promoter

Liyuan Zhou1,2, Yujun Li1,2, Changchen Hu3, Binquan Wang1,2

SKI‑178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models

Jeremy A. Hengst1,2, Taryn E. Dick1,2, Arati Sharma1, Kenichiro Doi3, Shailaja Hegde4, Su‑Fern Tan5, Laura M. Geffert1,2, Todd E. Fox5, Arun K. Sharma1, Dhimant Desai1, Shantu Amin1, Mark Kester5, Thomas P. Loughran5, Robert F. Paulson4, David F. Claxton6, Hong‑Gang Wang3, Jong K. Yun1,2

A T‑cell Engager‑armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to Target the Tumor Stroma

Feng Yu1, Bangxing Hong1, Xiao‑Tong Song1,2,3

Real‑world Experience with Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration‑resistant Prostate Cancer

Yasar Ahmed1, Nemer Osman1, Rizwan Sheikh2, Sarah Picardo1, Geoffrey Watson1

Combination of Interleukin‑11Rα Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‑cells and Programmed Death‑1 Blockade as an Approach to Targeting Osteosarcoma Cells In vitro

Hatel Rana Moonat, Gangxiong Huang, Pooja Dhupkar, Keri Schadler, Nancy Gordon,
Eugenie Kleinerman

Efficacy and Safety of Paclitaxel‑based Therapy and Nonpaclitaxel‑based Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

Tongwei Wu, Xiao Yang, Min An, Wenqin Luo, Danxian Cai, Xiaolong Qi

Motion Estimation of the Liver Based on Deformable Image Registration: A Comparison Between Four‑Dimensional‑Computed Tomography and Four‑Dimensional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xiao Liang1, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2, Yilin Liu1, Brian Czito2, Manisha Palta2, Mustafa Bashir3, Jing Cai1,2

A Feasibility Study of Applying Thermal Imaging to Assist Quality Assurance of High‑Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Xiaofeng Zhu1, Yu Lei1, Dandan Zheng1, Sicong Li1, Vivek Verma1, Mutian Zhang1, Qinghui Zhang1, Xiaoli Tang2, Jun Lian2, Sha X. Chang2, Haijun Song3, Sumin Zhou1, Charles A. Enke1

Role of Exosome microRNA in Breast Cancer

Wang Qu, Ma Fei, Binghe Xu

Recent Progress in Technological Improvement and Biomedical Applications of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas System

Yanlan Li1,2*, Zheng Hu1*, Yufang Yin3, Rongzhang He1, Jian Hu1, Weihao Luo1, Jia Li1, Gebo Wen2, Li Xiao1, Kai Li1, Duanfang Liao4, Di-Xian Luo1,5

The Significance of Nuclear Factor‑Kappa B Signaling Pathway in Glioma: A Review

Xiaoshan Xu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Markerless Four‑Dimensional‑Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection‑Phase Sorting Using Prior Knowledge and Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

Lei Zhang1,2, Yawei Zhang2, You Zhang1,2,3, Wendy B. Harris1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,4, Jing Cai1,4,5, Lei Ren1,2

The Producing Capabilities of Interferon‑g and Interleukin‑10 of Spleen Cells in Primary and Metastasized Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells-implanted Mice

Yasuka Azuma1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Toshihiro Inagaki4, Eiichi Chihara2, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Nobuo Kondoh1

“Eating” Cancer Cells by Blocking CD47 Signaling: Cancer Therapy by Targeting the Innate Immune Checkpoint

Yi‑Rong Xiang, Li Liu

Glycosylation is Involved in Malignant Properties of Cancer Cells

Kazunori Hamamura1, Koichi Furukawa2

Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Era of Precision Medicine

Qing‑Hao Zhu1*, Qing‑Chao Shang1*, Zhi‑Hao Hu1*, Yuan Liu2, Bo Li1, Bo Wang1, An‑Hui Wang1

I‑Kappa‑B Kinase‑epsilon Activates Nuclear Factor‑kappa B and STAT5B and Supports Glioblastoma Growth but Amlexanox Shows Little Therapeutic Potential in These Tumors

Nadège Dubois1, Sharon Berendsen2, Aurélie Henry1,2, Minh Nguyen1, Vincent Bours1,
Pierre Alain Robe1,2

Suppressive Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Interferon‑g‑Producing Capability of Spleen Cells was Specifically Enhanced through Humoral Mediator(s) from Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sq‑1979 Cells In Vitro

Toshihiro Inagaki1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Eiichi Chihara4, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Shinichiro Sumitomo5, Nobuo Kondoh1

An Interplay Between MicroRNA and SOX4 in the Regulation of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Progression

Anjali Geethadevi1, Ansul Sharma2, Manish Kumar Sharma3, Deepak Parashar1

MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Prostate Cancer of African‑American and European‑American Men

Ernest K. Amankwah

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Screening Anticancer Agents

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Taoli Sun3, Shengping Zhang1, Hongyan Zhang1

Panobinostat and Its Combination with 3‑Deazaneplanocin‑A Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit In vitro Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in GOS‑3 Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Javier de la Rosa*, Alejandro Urdiciain*, Juan Jesús Aznar‑Morales, Bárbara Meléndez1,
Juan A. Rey2, Miguel A. Idoate3, Javier S. Castresana

Cancer Stem‑Like Cells Have Cisplatin Resistance and miR‑93 Regulate p21 Expression in Breast Cancer

Akiko Sasaki1, Yuko Tsunoda2, Kanji Furuya3, Hideto Oyamada1, Mayumi Tsuji1, Yuko Udaka1, Masahiro Hosonuma1, Haruna Shirako1, Nana Ichimura1, Yuji Kiuchi1

The Contribution of Hexokinase 2 in Glioma

Hui Liu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang3, Yanyang Tu1

The Mechanism of BMI1 in Regulating Cancer Stemness Maintenance, Metastasis, Chemo‑ and Radiation Resistance

Xiaoshan Xu, Zhen Wang, Nan Liu, Pengxing Zhang, Hui Liu, Jing Qi, Yanyang Tu

A Multisource Adaptive Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Technique for Versatile Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lei Zhang1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,3, Brittany Moore1,2, Silu Han1,2, Jing Cai1,2,4

Senescence and Cancer

Sulin Zeng1,2, Wen H. Shen2, Li Liu1

The “Wild”‑type Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Heterogeneity on Molecule Characteristics and Clinical Features

Yanhua Mou1, Quan Wang1, Bin Li1,2

Retreatment with Cabazitaxel in a Long‑Surviving Patient with Castration‑Resistant Prostate Cancer and Visceral Metastasis

Raquel Luque Caro, Carmen Sánchez Toro, Lucia Ochoa Vallejo

Therapy‑Induced Histopathological Changes in Breast Cancers: The Changing Role of Pathology in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Shazima Sheereen1, Flora D. Lobo1, Waseemoddin Patel2, Shamama Sheereen3,
Abhishek Singh Nayyar4, Mubeen Khan5

Glioma Research in the Era of Medical Big Data

Feiyifan Wang1, Christopher J. Pirozzi2, Xuejun Li1

Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Adenomas: Case Report and Literature Review

Jian‑Hong Zhong1,2, Kang Chen1, Bhavesh K. Ahir3, Qi Huang4, Ye Wu4, Cheng‑Cheng Liao1, Rong‑Rong Jia1, Bang‑De Xiang1,2, Le‑Qun Li1,2

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, Role in Cancer, and Novel Drug Target

Antonio Lucena‑Cacace1,2,3, Amancio Carnero1,2

Enhanced Anticancer Effect by Combination of Proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on Bladder Cancer Cells

Michael Zhang, Kelvin Zheng, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno

Molecular Insights Turning Game for Management of Ependymoma: A Review of Literature

Ajay Sasidharan, Rahul Krishnatry

IDH Gene Mutation in Glioma

Leping Liu1, Xuejun Li1,2

Challenges and Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Report and Literature Review

Gerard Cathal Millen1, Karen A. Manias1,2, Andrew C. Peet1,2, Jenny K. Adamski1

Assessing the Feasibility of Using Deformable Registration for Onboard Multimodality‑Based Target Localization in Radiation Therapy

Ge Ren1,2,3, Yawei Zhang1,2, Lei Ren1,2

Research Advancement in the Tumor Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Qing Du1, Xiaoying Ji2, Guangjing Yin3, Dengxian Wei3, Pengcheng Lin1, Yongchang Lu1,
Yugui Li3, Qiaohong Yang4, Shizhu Liu5, Jinliang Ku5, Wenbin Guan6, Yuanzhi Lu7

Novel Insights into the Role of Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Lei Zhang1, Guoyu Qiu2, Xiaohui Xu2, Yufeng Zhou3, Ruiming Chang4

Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Unusual Presenting Symptoms

Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal

The Prognostic Role of Lactate in Patients Who Achieved Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Dongni Ren1, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1,2

Inhibitory Effect of Hyaluronidase‑4 in a Rat Spinal Cord Hemisection Model

Xipeng Wang1,2, Mitsuteru Yokoyama2, Ping Liu3

Research and Development of Anticancer Agents under the Guidance of Biomarkers

Xiaohui Xu1, Guoyu Qiu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Ruling Jia1, Bo Zhao1

Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Mansoor C. Abdulla

Phosphorylation of BRCA1‑Associated Protein 1 as an Important Mechanism in the Evasion of Tumorigenesis: A Perspective

Guru Prasad Sharma1, Anjali Geethadevi2, Jyotsna Mishra3, G. Anupa4, Kapilesh Jadhav5,
K. S. Vikramdeo6, Deepak Parashar2

Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of Biliary‑Pancreatic System

Ge Zengzheng1, Huang-Sheng Ling2, Ming-Feng Li2, Xu Xiaoyan1, Yao Kai1, Xu Tongzhen3,
Ge Zengyu4, Li Zhou5

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Study the Biological Activity of Anticancer Agent

Guoyu Qiu1, Xiaohui Xu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Huan Yang5

Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Breast Tumors

Steven Lehrer1, Peter H. Rheinstein2

OSMCC: An Online Survival Analysis Tool for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai1, Qiang Wang1, Xiaoxiao Sun1, Yifang Dang1, JiaJia Lv1,2, Junfang Xin1, Wan Zhu3, Yongqiang Li1, Xinying Ji1, Xiangqian Guo1

Protective Activity of Selenium against 5‑Fluorouracil‑Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Beauty Tokoni Amgbare

Advances on the Components of Fibrinolytic System in Malignant Tumors

Zengzheng Ge1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Zengyu Ge2, Shaopeng Zhou3, Xiulin Li1, Kai Yao1, Lan Deng4

A Patient with Persistent Foot Swelling after Ankle Sprain: B‑Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mimicking Soft‑tissue Sarcoma

Crystal R. Montgomery‑Goecker1, Andrew A. Martin2, Charles F. Timmons3, Dinesh Rakheja3, Veena Rajaram3, Hung S. Luu3

Coenzyme Q10 and Resveratrol Abrogate Paclitaxel‑Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Loritta Wasini Harris

Progress in Clinical Follow‑up Study of Dendritic Cells Combined with Cytokine‑Induced Killer for Stomach Cancer

Ling Wang1,2, Run Wan1,2, Cong Chen1,2, Ruiliang Su1,2, Yumin Li1,2

Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy as the Initial Manifestation in Carcinoma of Cervix

Priyanka Priyaarshini1, Tapan Kumar Sahoo2

ABO Typing Error Resolution and Transfusion Support in a Case of an Acute Leukemia Patient Showing Loss of Antigen Expression

Debasish Mishra1, Gopal Krushna Ray1, Smita Mahapatra2, Pankaj Parida2

Protein Disulfide Isomerase A3: A Potential Regulatory Factor of Colon Epithelial Cells

Yang Li1, Zhenfan Huang2, Haiping Jiang3

Clinicopathological Association of p16 and its Impact on Outcome of Chemoradiation in Head‑and‑Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Patients in North‑East India

Srigopal Mohanty1, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi2, Nithin Raj Daniel3, Dulasi Raman Ponna4,
Ph. Madhubala Devi5, Laishram Jaichand Singh2

Potential Inhibitor for 2019‑Novel Coronaviruses in Drug Development

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Lei Zhang3, Lingxue Zhuang4, Wutang Jing5, Lupeng Ji6, Guoyu Qiu1

Best‑Match Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Mixed Autoantibodies

Debasish Mishra1, Dibyajyoti Sahoo1, Smita Mahapatra2, Ashutosh Panigrahi3

Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Pheochromocytoma

Nadeema Rafiq1, Tauseef Nabi2, Sajad Ahmad Dar3, Shahnawaz Rasool4

Comparison of Histopathological Grading and Staging of Breast Cancer with p53‑Positive and Transforming Growth Factor‑Beta Receptor 2‑Negative Immunohistochemical Marker Expression Cases

Palash Kumar Mandal1, Anindya Adhikari2, Subir Biswas3, Amita Giri4, Arnab Gupta5,
Arindam Bhattacharya6

Chemical Compositions and Antiproliferative Effect of Essential Oil of Asafoetida on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line and Female Wistar Rats

Seyyed Majid Bagheri1,2, Davood Javidmehr3, Mohammad Ghaffari1, Ehsan Ghoderti‑Shatori4

Cyclooxygenase‑2 Contributes to Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting an Immunosuppressive Environment

Mun Kyoung Kim1, Aidin Iravani2, Matthew K. Topham2,3

Potential role of CircMET as A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Yan Liu1,2,3,4#, Chen Cui1,2,3,4#, Jidong Liu1,2,3,4, Peng Lin1,2,3,4,Kai Liang1,2,3,4, Peng Su5, Xinguo Hou1,2,3,4, Chuan Wang1,2,3,4, Jinbo Liu1,2,3,4, Bo Chen6, Hong Lai1,2,3,4, Yujing Sun1,2,3,4* and Li Chen 1,2,3,4*

Cuproptosis-related Genes in Glioblastoma as Potential Therapeutic Targets

Zhiyu Xia1,2, Haotian Tian1, Lei Shu1,2, Guozhang Tang3, Zhenyu Han4, Yangchun Hu1*, Xingliang Dai1*

Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments by Porous Inorganic Nanocarriers

Jianfeng Xu1,2, Hanwen Zhang1,2, Xiaohui Song1,2, Yangong Zheng3, Qingning Li1,2,4*

Delayed (20 Years) post-surgical Esophageal Metastasis of Breast Cancer - A Case Report

Bowen Hu1#, Lingyu Du2#, Hongya Xie1, Jun Ma1, Yong Yang1*, Jie Tan2*

Subtyping of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Its Clinical Meaning

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai, Zhendong Lu, Fengling Wang, Muhammad Usman Akbar, Saadullah Khattak, Muhammad Badar, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Longxiang Xie, Yongqiang Li, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo

Construction of Glioma Prognosis Model and Exploration of Related Regulatory Mechanism of Model Gene

Suxia Hu, Abdusemer Reyimu, Wubi Zhou, Xiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Xia Chen, Weiqiang Li, Jingjing Dai

ESRP2 as a Non-independent Potential Biomarker-Current Progress in Tumors

Yuting Chen, Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo, Chengkuan Zhao, Shuyao Zhang

Resection of Bladder Tumors at the Ureteral Orifice Using a Hook Plasma Electrode: A Case Report

Jun Li, Ziyong Wang, Qilin Wang

Structural Characterization and Bioactivity for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides

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