Cancer Translational Medicine

Original Research | Open Access

Vol.9 (2023) | Issue-4 | Page No: 150-160


Mining and Analysis of Adverse Events of BRAF Inhibitors Based on FDA Reporting System

Silan Peng1,2#, Danling Zheng1,3#, Yanli Lei4#, Wang Chen3, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xinyue Lin1, Xiaoshan Chen3, Wei He3, Li Li3, Qiuzhen Zhang5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*


1.Department of Pharmacology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China

2.Department of Pharmacy, Shenzhen Samii Medical Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

3.Department of Pharmacy, Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

4.Department of Pharmacy, The 2nd People’s Hospital of Bijie, Bijie, Guizhou, China

5.Department of Pharmacy, Jiangmen Central Hospital, Jiangmen, Guangdong, China

# These authors contributed equally to this work.

* Corresponding Author

Address for correspondence: Prof. Shuyao Zhang, Department of Pharmacy, Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital of Jinan University, No. 396 Tongfuzhong Road, Haizhu District, Guangzhou 510220, Guangdong, China. E-mail:

Dr. Qiuzhen Zhang, Department of Pharmacy, Jiangmen Central Hospital, No. 23 Haipang Street, North Street, Pengjiang District, Jiangmen 529000, Guangdong, China. E-mail:

Important Dates  

Date of Submission:   14-Sep-2023

Date of Acceptance:   25-Oct-2023

Date of Publication:   20-Dec-2023


Objective: Based on the FDA adverse event reporting system (FAERS) database, four kinds of rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma B-type (BRAF) inhibitors, sorafenib, regorafenib, dabrafenib, and encorafenib, were mined and analyzed in adverse drug event (ADE) signals, so as to provide safe and reasonable drug use reference for clinical practice.

Methods: The ADE data of four kinds of BRAF inhibitors from their market introduction to March 31, 2023, were cleansed by the OpenVigil 2.1 platform, and systematically classified by the medical dictionary for regulatory activities (MedDRA), and the proportional reporter ratio (PRR) and reported odds ratio (ROR) were used to screen and count the effective ADE signals.

Results: A total of 44,256 ADE cases were reported and 1683 signals were involved. Including 17,838 cases of sorafenib involving 657 signals, 6513 cases of regorafenib involving 417 signals, 14,789 cases of dabrafenib involving 425 signals, 5116 cases of encorafenib involving 184 signals. The results of signal mining were sorted by the top 50 Preferred Terms (PTs) of the strength, with a total of 90 suspicious new ADRs appearing.

Conclusion: This paper further improves the ADR information of BRAF inhibitors. Remind the healthcare professionals to strengthen drug monitoring, and recommend the development of individualized dosing regimens.

Keywords: BRAF inhibitors; Adverse drug event; Adverse drug reaction; FAERS database; Signal mining


According to the analysis of GLOBOCAN 2020 data, there are 9.96 million cancer deaths worldwide, the top five cancers in terms of cancer-related mortality worldwide in 2020 were lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, and stomach cancer.[1] Lung cancer is the malignant tumor with the highest cancer mortality in the world, while breast cancer has become the leading cancer in terms of new cases worldwide. In order to alleviate the global cancer burden, in the past 20 years, small molecule inhibitors have become one of the key research and development drugs for the treatment of cancer, which can improve the specificity and effectiveness of cancer treatment and bring hope to cancer patients.[2] These small molecule targeted drugs include rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma B-type (BRAF) inhibitors.

The BRAF gene is located at chromosome 7q34, which encodes the serine/threonine protein kinase of the RAF family. BRAF protein acts in the MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway of RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK and stimulates cell proliferation and growth by activating RAS signaling. Research has shown that approximately 8% of human cancers have BRAF gene mutations, which are most commonly found in melanoma (approximately 40%-60%) and thyroid cancer (approximately 50%), and are also present in colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and gliomas.[3] The BRAF mutation rate in melanoma is approximately 25.9% in China.[4] And these BRAF mutations are observed in about 1.5%-5.5% NSCLC patients.[5] At present, over 40 types of BRAF mutations have been discovered, with the vast majority occurring at position 600 of the gene, where valine is replaced by glutamic acid, known as the BRAF V600E mutation. BRAF mutations lead to an increase in kinase activity, which sustains the downstream activation of the ERK signaling pathway, resulting in unlimited proliferation of cancer cells. BRAF inhibitors are small molecule kinase inhibitors that can be classified as non-specific or specific based on their target. Non-specific BRAF inhibitors affect multiple kinases, including BRAF protein, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and so on. The main drugs in this category include sorafenib, pazopanib, regorafenib, and the Chinese original research drug donafenib. Specific BRAF inhibitors target the BRAF V600 mutation specifically, including dabrafenib, encorafenib, and vemurafenib.

The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database collects adverse event reports that are voluntarily submitted by healthcare professionals, pharmaceutical manufacturers, patients, and others from different regions.[6] The data of OpenVigil 2.1 was obtained from FAERS, and the complete case report was preserved by cleaning the FAERS database. In this study, we used the OpenVigil 2.1 database to mine the adverse drug event (ADE) signals of BRAF inhibitors and compared them with the adverse drug reaction (ADR) information in the drug specification. The aim is to provide references for clinical safety and rational drug use.



All original ADE data for sorafenib, regorafenib, dabrafenib, and encorafenib, including all data from the time of market introduction to March 31, 2023, were downloaded from the public data platform OpenVigil 2.1. The drugs "sorafenib", "sorafenib tosylate", "regorafenib", "dabrafenib", and "encorafenib" were searched, and the corresponding "Raw_data" and "Frequentist_methods" data files were downloaded and saved in "csv" format.

Data cleaning and processing

Exclude reports of non-target drugs, repeated reports, and gaps in adverse events. Then, standardize the selected adverse events through medical term coding using the Preferred Term (PT) and System Organ Class (SOC) from the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) version 26.0.

Signal mining methods

Applied the proportional reporter ratio (PRR) and reported odds ratio (ROR) to calculate the intensity of ADE signals. ROR is widely used in the mining and analysis of ADE signals due to its high sensitivity, simple calculation, and low bias. The calculation formulas and signal generation conditions are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. In this study, the ROR and PRR values indicate the strength of ADE signals, with higher values indicating a stronger association between the target drug and the target ADE.[7] We selected the PT that simultaneously meets the signal generation conditions of both ROR and PRR methods as the focus of our research to reduce bias caused by false positive signals.

Table 1.
Table 1. Fourfold table of disproportional method

Table 2.
Table 2. Formulas and signal threshold values of ROR and PRR


The basic information of ADE reports

After data cleaning, a total of 44,256 ADE reports of these four types of BRAF inhibitors were collected, including 17,838 reports for sorafenib, 6513 reports for regorafenib, 14,789 reports for dabrafenib, and 5116 reports for encorafenib. The data showed that more male patients reported than female patients. The patients ranged in age from 65 to 84 years. The data were primarily from the USA and Japan. As for the association level of ADE, the reports mainly indicated the "suspected drug" as the primary cause. Since encorafenib has not been marketed in China, the number of reported data is relatively low. The basic information of the reports is detailed in Table 3.

Table 3.
Table 3. Basic information of adverse event reports of BRAF inhibitors [n(%)]

The basic information of ADE signals

After screening for signals using both the ROR method and PRR method, a total of 1790 ADE signals were identified and classified into their respective primary SOC, including 692 signals for sorafenib, 444 signals for regorafenib, 461 signals for dabrafenib, and 193 signals for encorafenib. In order to reduce the effect of "Indication bias", this study excluded the ADE-related PTs that were reported as indications for the target drugs. Non-drug factors, including surgical and medical procedures, and product issues, were also eliminated from the analysis. The results showed that sorafenib had 657 signals, involving 24 SOC. Regorafenib had 417 signals, involving 22 SOC. Dabrafenib had 425 signals, involving 24 SOC. Encorafenib had 184 signals, involving 20 SOC. The most frequently affected SOC among the four BRAF inhibitors was the "Gastrointestinal disorders", while the SOC not involved was "Pregnancy, puerperium, and perinatal conditions". The signals of sorafenib and regorafenib were mainly concentrated in "Gastrointestinal disorders", "Investigations", "Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl cysts and polyps)" and "Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders". The signals of dabrafenib were mainly concentrated in "Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl cysts and polyps)", "Investigations" and "Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders". The signals of encorafenib were mainly concentrated in "Gastrointestinal disorders", "Eye disorders" and "Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders". In particular, ocular diseases are more common in dabrafenib and encorafenib. The distribution of SOC is shown in Figure 1.

The mining results of the ADE signals

Due to space limitations, it is impossible to list all ADEs, hence top 20 PTs of the ADE signals of the four BRAF inhibitors are shown in Table 4. The top 20 PTs are listed in descending order of the frequency of ADE occurrence and compared with the ADR mentioned in the current foreign drug instructions. It can be concluded that the high-frequency ADEs caused by these drugs are generally consistent with the ADRs mentioned in the drug instructions. A total of 7 new ADRs were observed, which are marked in Table 4.

The ROR and PRR methods were used to calculate the top 50 PTs of signal strength and their respective SOC classifications. Since the signals calculated by both methods are the same, Table 5 shows only the calculated values of the ROR method with better sensitivity. The results show that all four BRAF inhibitors can cause skin toxicity, gastrointestinal reactions, and neurological disorders. Also showed that a total of 90 suspected ADRs (exclusion of tumor progression and metastasis, and off-label indications of the drug) were not recorded in the drug instructions, including 23 of sorafenib, 19 of regorafenib, 15 of dabrafenib, and 33 of encorafenib, which are marked in Table 5. Thus, it can be concluded that the BRAF inhibitors have numerous possible suspicious high-risk signals, and these ADRs may not have been promptly updated in the drug instructions.


Skin toxicity and gastrointestinal adverse effects

According to Figure 1, gastrointestinal disease and skin toxicity are the SOCs with the most and strongest ADR signaling in BRAF inhibitors. Common adverse reactions include hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR), panniculitis, keratoacanthoma, squamous cell carcinoma, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. Numerous clinical studies have confirmed a causal relationship between these drugs and these ADRs. The mechanisms of action of skin toxicity are complex, associated with keratinocyte damage, and affect the MAPK signaling pathway.[8],[9] The incidence of gastrointestinal reactions is high, and a small number of patients discontinue treatment because of these side effects, although most patients can be relieved by symptomatic therapy.[10],[11] As shown in Table 5, encorafenib has a new ADR, gastrointestinal ulcers, the causal relationship of which remains to be explored.

Figure 1.
Figure 1. System Organ Class (SOC) distribution of adverse drug event of BRAF inhibitors

Progression, metastasis, and off-label indications of tumors

There is no record on the drug instructions that drugs can cause progression and metastasis of primary tumors, but there are literature reports that drugs can develop drug resistance and cause new tumors. It has been shown that the median progression-free survival duration for BRAF inhibitor in the treatment of melanoma is 9 months.[12] Even when combined with MEK inhibitors (such as trametinib, and binimetinib), acquired resistance can still develop within a median of 9-11 months.[9] The most common mechanism of resistance is the restoration of the MAPK signaling pathway, in particular the enhancement of homologous/heterodimers of the RAF proteins, which renders these drugs ineffective.[13] Vitamin K deficiency or antagonist II-induced protein (PIVKA-II), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) are tumor markers, and their abnormalities often indicate tumor progression, these suspicious ADR signals are not documented in the instructions. Analysis showed signs of abnormal tumor markers, tumor progression and metastasis, either due to the progression of primary malignancy or drug resistance or adverse drug reactions. Resistance to these drugs has been reported to be more common, but whether the drug causes tumor progression needs to be confirmed by further clinical trials, and dabrafenib has been found to cause new malignancy.

According to the frequency ranking of ADE signals, off-label use of drugs is common. In fact, many trials of off-label use are conducted clinically. An experimental study involving 18 cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) and 33 cases of aldosterone-producing adenoma demonstrated that sorafenib alone or in combination with everolimus can significantly reduce the viability of H295R and SW13 cancer cells; it may provide a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ACC.[14] A clinical trial conducted at 13 comprehensive cancer centers in France involving 38 adult patients with recurrent, progressive, or metastatic osteosarcoma following conventional chemotherapy confirmed the clinically significant anti-tumor activity of regorafenib. Studies have shown that the mechanisms of action of these two drugs against osteosarcoma involve the upregulation of PINK1 to inhibit Rab22a-NeoF1-induced lung metastasis in osteosarcoma.[15] The use of dabrafenib or encorafenib in the treatment of refractory/recurrent hairy leukemia (HCL) was shown to be effective in the study by Falini et al., and suggested that could be used as a new treatment option for HCL.[16] Although the above studies have confirmed the effectiveness of off-label use of BRAF inhibitors, there are unknown risks that should be weighed against the benefits and harms of use.

Cardiovascular adverse events (CVAE)

The incidence of cardiovascular events caused by BRAF inhibitors is relatively high, among which Q wave-T wave (Q-T) interval prolongation of the heart is documented in the instructions of all four BRAF inhibitors. Hypertension is one of the common adverse effects of these drugs, with one large meta-analysis showing an overall incidence of 19.1% of sorafenib causing grade 1 to 4 hypertension,[14] and another meta-analysis showing that sorafenib increases the risk and incidence of arterial thrombosis.[18] Sorafenib and regofenib had a definite ADR of "Myocardial ischemia and infarction". A study on the cardiotoxicity of targeted therapies drug for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), was conducted by mining the WHO global database of individual case safety reports (VigiBase) for ADRs. It was found that Dabrafenib increased the risk of heart failure and Q-T interval prolongation.[19] Another 8-year monitoring study, conducted by a US organization using two large drug surveillance databases, found that the use of BRAF inhibitors (including Dabrafenib and Encorafenib) or BRAF/MEK inhibitor combinations increased the risk of cardiovascular adverse events (hypertension, heart failure, and venous thrombosis) in adult patients.[20] Dabrafenib can cause abnormal creatine kinase (CK), the adverse reactions of targeted drugs for the treatment of melanoma were investigated in Japan, and the main adverse event of dabrafenib combined with trametinib was an increase in CK (8.59%).[21] Abnormal CK suggests rhabdomyolysis and myocardial infarction, although it is not recorded in its instructions, it should be highly regarded clinically. In addition, this study also found potential cardiovascular adverse events such as varicose veins, aortic thrombosis, and Trousseau's syndrome.

Eye disorders

Among the top 50 ADE signal intensities of the four BRAF inhibitors, encorafenib has the highest number of signals for eye diseases, including serous retinopathy, serous retinal detachment, chorioretinopathy, retinal oedema, retinal detachment, macular detachment, macular oedema,  colour blindness acquired, and xanthopsia are new ADRs outside the drug instructions. Some ADRs have been reported, but some still need to be confirmed by clinical trials. Van Cutsem et al. have reported cases of serous retinopathy in patients with BRAF V600E-mutant colorectal cancer treated with combination therapy with encorafenib.[22] A case-control study involving 570 advanced melanoma patients from Columbus found that compared to monotherapy with encorafenib, the incidence of serous retinopathy was higher with the combination therapy of binimetinib and encorafenib.[23] Additionally, dabrafenib exhibits significant adverse reaction signals for eye diseases; one new ADR signal is serous retinopathy. Three patients treated with the combination of dabrafenib for advanced melanoma experienced Vogt-koyanagi-harada disease, a rare disease also known as idiopathic uveal encephalitis.[24],[25] Ocular toxicity in sorafenib and regorafenib has been reported less frequently, with only a few cases.[26],[27] Eye diseases can be treated by discontinuation of anticancer drugs and topical or systemic corticosteroids, and if necessary, intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs.[28]

Advantages and limitations of this study

This study is based on the real-world drug safety data of the FAERS database. The wide scope of the data can compensate for the limited clinical data available before a drug is marketed, and it provides evidence for supplementing the post-marketing drug instructions. ADE signal mining can promote the safe and rational use of drugs in clinical practice, provide medication references, and reduce the occurrence of ADRs. Limitations of this paper include that the data reported are mainly from European and American countries, and there may be racial differences in Chinese groups. The database also suffers from issues such as underreporting, overreporting, and duplication, which can potentially affect the attention given to new signals. The same report often includes multiple drugs or multiple clinical symptoms, making it difficult to accurately differentiate them during statistical analysis. Signal detection methods like ROR and PRR can only represent the statistical association between drugs and ADEs, but they cannot determine causality. To establish causality, large sample sizes, and prospective trials are needed for validation.


This study examines the real-world study of four BRAF inhibitors through the FAERS database. These four drugs cover a wide range of system organ classes (SOC) and have ADRs that are not mentioned in their respective drug instructions. The ADR profiles of these drugs are both similar and different. The incidence of skin toxicity and gastrointestinal reaction was high, and Encorafenib carries the highest risk of ocular toxicity. In addition, clinical attention should also be paid to the occurrence of drug resistance and cardiovascular toxicity. The drug adverse event signals serve as a reminder for drug development and manufacturing organizations to strengthen post-marketing surveillance, and promptly update and improve the drug instructions. It also reminds healthcare professionals to enhance medication monitoring, implement individualized dosing regimens, and ensure the safety of medication.



This work was supported by the grants from 2022 Bai Qiu En-Qiu Suo-Pharmacy Scientific Research Capacity Building Project (No.Z04JKM2021005) (to Shuyao Zhang), 2022 Guangdong Province Scientific and Technological Innovation Strategy Special ("Big Special + Task List ") Project (Shantou Ke [2022] 124, No.STKJ202209072) (to Shuyao Zhang) and Notice on the Approval of the 2023 "Unveiling and Leading" Project (Bikehe Major Special Project [2023] No.2-2) (to Yanli Lei).



The authors declare no conflicts of interest.



Not applicable.



Silan Peng, Danling Zheng and Xinyue Lin contributed to the study’s conception and design. Data collection and analysis were performed by Silan Peng, Yanli Lei, Wang Chen, Chengkuan Zhao, Xiaoshan Chen, Wei He, Li Li and Qiuzhen Zhang. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Shuyao Zhang and Yanli Lei and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.



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Table 4 and Table 5

Table 4.
Table 4. Top 20 PTs for frequency of adverse event reports for 4 BRAF inhibitors

Table 5.
Table 5. Top 50 PTs of adverse event signals strength by 4 BRAF inhibitors

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Anticoagulation might not be necessary for asymptomatic central venous catheter-related thrombosis in adults

Wei Zhang1, Zhi Xiang1, Qin Ma2, Chuanlin Zhang3, Yu Zhao1, Qining Fu1*

The Roles of microRNA in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Jingya Gao1*, Li Liu2*

Lung Cancer Tumor Microenvironment: An Update on Recent Advances in Research

Guangda Yuan1, Bowen Hu1, Yong Yang1*

Quantified ADC Values and Attenuation Trends for Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Multiple b Values MRI

Jing Hu1#, Jingying Bu1#,Zhe Wang2#, Zhengdan Su2, Xiaoxian Wang2, Haiyao Pi3, Diliang Li2, Zhaoyang Pu4, Xin Tian1*

Differential Expression of T-box Transcription Factor TBX19 Regulates the Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Guifang He1, Yanjiao Hu2, Fuguo Dong3, Changchang Liu1, Duo Cai1, Shihai Liu1*

Advances in Pathogenesis and Non-surgical Therapy of Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma

Yichen Wu1, Jia Chen2*

Quercetin Inhibits the Proliferation and Migration of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma by Targeting the Prognostic-related Gene MMP1 via Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Zhenhua Zu1,2#, Zhongguo Zhu3#, Zhiyu Xia2, Hongrang Chen1*, Yongsheng Li1*

Huge Lung Fibroleiomyomatous Hamartoma in the Pleural Cavity – A Case report

Minghui Liu1#, Xin Li1#, Hongbing Zhang1, Fan Ren1, Ming Dong1, Chunqiu Xia1, Jun Chen1,2*

Increased Expression of IL-17A, IL-6, STAT3, TGF-β, and VEGF: Potential Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer?

Zishen Xiao1, Chengxia Bai1, Teng Zhao1, Jiayu Lin1, Lijuan Yang1, Jian Liu2, Zhenjiang Wang1, Ying Sun3,4, Yanbo Liu1*

Identification of NSD2 as a Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Wei Zhao1#, Xinyu Xiao1#, Yu Gao1,2, Shanshan Liu3, Xiuzhen Zhang1, Changhong Yang1, Qiling Peng1, Ning Jiang2*, Jianwei Wang1*

Quercetin Inhibits Glioma Proliferation by Targeting CDK1 and CCNB1 - Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Huaixu Li1#, Peng Gao1#, Haotian Tian1, Zhenyu Han2, Xingliang Dai1*, Hongwei Cheng1*

Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Yttrium-90 Microspheres in Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Applications and recent advances

Wei Wang1, Dawei Xie1, Bing Li1, Minghao Chen1*

Irreversible Electroporation in Pancreatic Cancer – Applications and recent advances

Yuanyuan Sun1, Qian Li2, Jia Hu2, Yanfang Liu2*, Xiaosong Li2*

Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T‑stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Shengen Yi, Xiongjian Cui, Li Xiong, Xiaofeng Deng, Dongni Pei, Yu Wen, Xiongying Miao

MicroRNAs are Related to Rituximab in Combination with Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone Resistance in Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

Haibo Huang1, Junjiao Gu1, Shuna Yao1, Zhihua Yao1, Yan Zhao1, Qingxin Xia2, Jie Ma2, Ling Mai3, Shujun Yang1, Yanyan Liu1

Comparison of Intra-voxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in the Evaluation of Focal Malignant Liver Masses

Jinrong Qu1, Xiang Li1, Lei Qin2, Lifeng Wang1, Junpeng Luo1, Jianwei Zhang1, Hongkai Zhang1, Jing Li1, Fei Sun3, Shouning Zhang1, Yanle Li1, Cuicui Liu1, Hailiang Li1

Extracting Breathing Signal Using Fourier Transform from Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Jing Cai1,2, Yilin Liu2, Fangfang Yin1,2

Split End Family RNA Binding Proteins: Novel Tumor Suppressors Coupling Transcriptional Regulation with RNA Processing

Hairui Su1, Yanyan Liu2, Xinyang Zhao1

Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

Pengxing  Zhang1, Xiaoling Pang2,3, Yanyang Tu1,4

Associations of Age and Chemotherapy with Late Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Toxicity in a Hypofractionated Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Schedule in Post‑mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients

Mohammad Akram1, Ghufran Nahid1, Shahid Ali Siddiqui1, Ruquiya Afrose2

Monitoring of Disease Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia‑chronic Phase Patients Treated with Indian Generic Veenat (NATCO) Imatinib Mesylate: A Tertiary Care Experience

Khushboo Dewan, Tathagat Chatterjee

Review of Cancer Immunotherapy: Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death‑ligand 1 Antibodies

Tengfei Zhang1,2, Ling Cao1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongli Yue1, Yu Ping1, Hong Li1, Lan Huang1, Yi Zhang1,3,4,5

Systematic Review of MicroRNAs and its Therapeutic Potential in Glioma

Nan Liu1, Yanyang Tu2

The Involvement of p53‑miR‑34a‑CDK4 Signaling During the Development of Cervical Cancer

Huijun Zuo, Jieqi Xiong, Hongwei Chen, Sisun Liu, Qiaoying Gong, Fei Guo

Unusual Clinical Presentation of a Rare Type of Breast Malignancy: A Case Report and a Short Review of Literature

Nadeesha J. Nawarathna1, Navam R. Kumarasinghe1, Palitha Rathnayake2,
Ranjith J. K. Seneviratne1

Sweet’s Syndrome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t (9:22)

Khushboo Dewan, Shailaja Shukla

Analysis of the Correlationship between Prostate Specific Antigen Related Variables and Risk Factor in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma

Daoyuan Wang1, Tiejun Yang2, Yongqiang Zou1, Xinqiang Yang1

Recent Progress in Genetic and Epigenetic Profile of Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Zhengxi He1, Bin Li1,2

Strategies for Management of Spinal Metastases: A Comprehensive Review

Zhantao Deng, Bin Xu, Jiewen Jin, Jianning Zhao, Haidong Xu

Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

Xia Mao, Yanqiong Zhang, Na Lin

Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yupeng Lei1, Hongxia Chen2, Pi Liu1, Xiaodong Zhou1

Expression Characteristics of miR‑10b in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Gang Li, Yunteng Zhao, Jianqi Wang, Haoran Huang, Mengwen Zhang

An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

Zonggao Shi, M. Sharon Stack

Promoter Methylated Tumor Suppressor Genes in Glioma

Yingduan Cheng1, Yanyang Tu2, Pei Liang3

Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

Chenyang Liu1*, Qian Qian2*, Shen Geng1, Wenkui Sun1, Yi Shi1

Functional Perspective and Implications of Gene Expression by Noncoding RNAs

Xiaoshuang Yan1, Huanyu Xu2, Zhonghai Yan3

Expression of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Multiple Myeloma Patients after Treatment with the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib

James Joseph Driscoll

miR‑505 Downregulates 6‑Phosphofructo‑2‑Kinase/ Fructose‑2,6‑Biphosphatase 4 to Promote Cell Death in Glioblastoma

Esther H. Chung, Hongwei Yang, Hongyan Xing, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson

Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosing Bone Tumors

Sonal Mahajan1, Akash Arvind Saoji2, Anil Agrawal1

Histone H2A and H2B Deubiquitinase in Developmental Disease and Cancer

Demeng Chen1, Caifeng Dai2, Yizhou Jiang3

Genetic Characteristics of Glioblastoma: Clinical Implications of Heterogeneity

Qian Li1, Yanyang Tu1,2

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Normal Platelet Count

Khushboo Dewan, Kiran Agarwal

Galanin is a Novel Epigenetic Silenced Functional Tumor Suppressor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Shengkun Sun1*, Axiang Xu1*, Guoqiang Yang1, Yingduan Cheng2


Selenium Dioxide Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells via Regulating Apoptosis-related Let-7a MicroRNA and Proteins

Sisun Liu1, Jieqi Xiong2, Ling Guo3, Min Xiu1,4, Feng He1,4, Yuanlei Lou5, Fei Guo6,7

Low Expression of Polo‑like Kinase 1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Liver Cancer

Weixia Li1, Kunpeng Liu1, Dechen Lin2, Xin Xu2, Haizhen Lu3, Xinyu Bi4, Mingrong Wang2

Extracorporeal Photopheresis for Steroid‑refractory Chronic Graft‑versus‑host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Runzhe Chen1, Baoan Chen1, Peter Dreger2, Michael Schmitt2, Anita Schmitt2

Glucans and Cancer: Historical Perspective

Petr Sima1, Luca Vannucci1, Vaclav Vetvicka2

Implications of Circadian Rhythm Regulation by microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer

Song Wu1, Andrew Fesler2, Jingfang Ju2

BCL2 Family, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, and Beyond

Haiming Dai1, X. Wei Meng2, Scott H. Kaufmann2

Quantum Dot‑based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications

Li Zhou1, Jingzhe Yan2, Lingxia Tong3, Xuezhe Han4, Xuefeng Wu5, Peng Guo6

CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

Lu Huang1, Weiguo Lv2, Xiaofeng Zhao1

Etiological Trends in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Institutional Study

Varsha Salian, Chethana Dinakar, Pushparaja Shetty, Vidya Ajila

Effect of Irinotecan Combined with Cetuximab on Liver Function in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer with Liver Metastases

Yan Liang1, Yang Li2, Xin Li3, Jianfu Zhao4

The Role of Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer: Challenges for Targeted Therapy, Immune Modulating Treatment, Early Detection, and Less Invasive Operations

Khaled Kyle Wong1, Zhirong Qian2, Yi Le3

Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Natural Products

Weidong Li1,2*, Cihui Chen3*, Zheng Liu2, Baojin Hua1

The Potential of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Focus on Breast Cancer

Mahnaz M. Kazi, Trupti I. Trivedi, Toral P. Kobawala, Nandita R. Ghosh

Imaging‑driven Digital Biomarkers

Enrico Capobianco

Target‑Matching Accuracy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer: An Investigation Based on Four‑Dimensional Digital Human Phantom

Jing Cai1,2, Kate Turner2, Xiao Liang2, W. Paul Segars2,3, Chris R. Kelsey1, David Yoo1, Lei Ren1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2

Downregulation of Death‑associated Protein Kinase 3 and Caspase‑3 Correlate to the Progression and Poor Prognosis of Gliomas

Ye Song, Tianshi Que, Hao Long, Xi’an Zhang, Luxiong Fang, Zhiyong Li, Songtao Qi

Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

Ana Paula Cleto Marolla1, Jaques Waisberg2, Gabriela Tognini Saba2, Demétrius Eduardo Germini2, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal1

Melanoma Antigen Gene Family in the Cancer Immunotherapy

Fengyu Zhu1, Yu Liang1, Demeng Chen2, Yang Li1

Combined Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Collision Tumor Variation

Kaijun Huang1, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios1, Wanhua Yang2, Rajeev L. Balmiki3

Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line (Michigan Cancer Foundation‑7)

Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini

Impact of Age on the Biochemical Failure and Androgen Suppression after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men

Nigel P. Murray1,2, Eduardo Reyes1,3, Nelson Orellana1, Cynthia Fuentealba1, Omar Jacob1

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: 35 Years of a Single Institution’s Experience

Rana I. Mahmood1,2, Mohammed Aldehaim1,3, Fazal Hussain4, Tusneem A. Elhassan4,
Zubeir A. Khan5, Muhammad A. Memon6

Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Therapy: A Discussion

Yeling Ouyang1, Xi Chen2, Chunyun Zhang1, Vichitra Bunyamanop1, Jianfeng Guo3

The Progress in Molecular Biomarkers of Gliomas

Jing Qi1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Correlation between Paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 and its Therapeutic Efficacy and Severe Toxicities in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Shuyao Zhang1*, Muyin Sun2*, Yun Yuan3*, Miaojun Wang4*, Yuqi She1*, Li Zhou5, Congzhu Li5, Chen Chen1, Shengqi Zhang4

Identifying Gaps and Relative Opportunities for Discovering Membrane Proteomic Biomarkers of Triple‑negative Breast Cancer as a Translational Priority

Bhooma Venkatraman

The Molecular Mechanism and Regulatory Pathways of Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Wang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems and Three‑dimensional Cell Cultures in Cancer Treatments and Research

Wenjin Shi1, Ding Weng2,3, Wanting Niu2,3

Choline Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TRAIL in the Treatment of Colorectal Tumors and Overcomes TRAIL Resistance

Juan Carlos Lacal1, Ladislav Andera2

MicroRNA Regulating Metabolic Reprogramming in Tumor Cells: New Tumor Markers

Daniel Otero‑Albiol, Blanca Felipe‑Abrio

Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Genome‑wide Perspective

José M. Santos‑Pereira1, Sandra Muñoz‑Galván2

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide+ Metabolism Biomarkers in Malignant Gliomas

Manuel P. Jiménez‑García, Eva M. Verdugo‑Sivianes, Antonio Lucena‑Cacace

Patient-derived Xenografts as Models for Personalized Medicine Research in Cancer

Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero

Genome‑wide Transcriptome Analysis of Prostate Cancer Tissue Identified Overexpression of Specific Members of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus‑K Family

Behnam Sayanjali1,2

Clinical Utility of Interleukin‑18 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Reecha A. Parikh, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Mahnaz M. Kazi, Nandita R. Ghosh

Current and Future Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced Soft‑tissue Sarcoma beyond Anthracyclines and Ifosfamide

Nadia Hindi1,2, Javier Martin‑Broto1,2

The Genomic Organization and Function of IRX1 in Tumorigenesis and Development

Pengxing Zhang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Stem Cell‑based Approach in Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer Management

Yi‑Zhou Jiang1, Demeng Chen2

Mutation Detection with a Liquid Biopsy 96 Mutation Assay in Cancer Patients and Healthy Donors

Aaron Yun Chen, Glenn D. Braunstein, Megan S. Anselmo, Jair A. Jaboni, Fernando Troy Viloria, Julie A. Neidich, Xiang Li, Anja Kammesheidt

The Application of Estrogen Receptor‑1 Mutations’ Detection through Circulating Tumor DNA in Breast Cancer

Binliang Liu, Yalan Yang, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma

Circulating MicroRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs: Liquid Biomarkers in Thoracic Cancers

Pablo Reclusa1, Anna Valentino1, Rafael Sirera1,2, Martin Frederik Dietrich3, Luis Estuardo Raez3, Christian Rolfo1

Exosomes Biology: Function and Clinical Implications in Lung Cancer

Martin Frederik Dietrich1, Christian Rolfo2, Pablo Reclusa2, Marco Giallombardo2, Anna Valentino2, Luis E. Raez1

Circulating Tumor DNA: A Potential Biomarker from Solid Tumors’ Monitor to Anticancer Therapies

Ting Chen1,2, Rongzhang He1,3, Xinglin Hu1,3,4, Weihao Luo1, Zheng Hu1,3, Jia Li1, Lili Duan1, Yali Xie1,2, Wenna Luo1,2, Tan Tan1,2, Di‑Xian Luo1,2

Novel Molecular Multilevel Targeted Antitumor Agents

Poonam Sonawane1, Young A. Choi1, Hetal Pandya2, Denise M. Herpai1, Izabela Fokt3,
Waldemar Priebe3, Waldemar Debinski1

Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Effects and Clinical Relevance

Pei Liang, Michael Gao Jr.

Stemness‑related Markers in Cancer

Wenxiu Zhao1, Yvonne Li2, Xun Zhang1

Autophagy Regulated by miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Resistance

Andrew Fesler1, Hua Liu1, Ning Wu1,2, Fei Liu3, Peixue Ling3, Jingfang Ju1,3

Gastric Metastases Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: A Brief Literature Review

Simona Gurzu1,2,3, Marius Alexandru Beleaua1, Laura Banias2, Ioan Jung1

Possibility of Specific Expression of the Protein Toxins at the Tumor Site with Tumor‑specialized Promoter

Liyuan Zhou1,2, Yujun Li1,2, Changchen Hu3, Binquan Wang1,2

SKI‑178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models

Jeremy A. Hengst1,2, Taryn E. Dick1,2, Arati Sharma1, Kenichiro Doi3, Shailaja Hegde4, Su‑Fern Tan5, Laura M. Geffert1,2, Todd E. Fox5, Arun K. Sharma1, Dhimant Desai1, Shantu Amin1, Mark Kester5, Thomas P. Loughran5, Robert F. Paulson4, David F. Claxton6, Hong‑Gang Wang3, Jong K. Yun1,2

A T‑cell Engager‑armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to Target the Tumor Stroma

Feng Yu1, Bangxing Hong1, Xiao‑Tong Song1,2,3

Real‑world Experience with Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration‑resistant Prostate Cancer

Yasar Ahmed1, Nemer Osman1, Rizwan Sheikh2, Sarah Picardo1, Geoffrey Watson1

Combination of Interleukin‑11Rα Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‑cells and Programmed Death‑1 Blockade as an Approach to Targeting Osteosarcoma Cells In vitro

Hatel Rana Moonat, Gangxiong Huang, Pooja Dhupkar, Keri Schadler, Nancy Gordon,
Eugenie Kleinerman

Efficacy and Safety of Paclitaxel‑based Therapy and Nonpaclitaxel‑based Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

Tongwei Wu, Xiao Yang, Min An, Wenqin Luo, Danxian Cai, Xiaolong Qi

Motion Estimation of the Liver Based on Deformable Image Registration: A Comparison Between Four‑Dimensional‑Computed Tomography and Four‑Dimensional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xiao Liang1, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2, Yilin Liu1, Brian Czito2, Manisha Palta2, Mustafa Bashir3, Jing Cai1,2

A Feasibility Study of Applying Thermal Imaging to Assist Quality Assurance of High‑Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Xiaofeng Zhu1, Yu Lei1, Dandan Zheng1, Sicong Li1, Vivek Verma1, Mutian Zhang1, Qinghui Zhang1, Xiaoli Tang2, Jun Lian2, Sha X. Chang2, Haijun Song3, Sumin Zhou1, Charles A. Enke1

Role of Exosome microRNA in Breast Cancer

Wang Qu, Ma Fei, Binghe Xu

Recent Progress in Technological Improvement and Biomedical Applications of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas System

Yanlan Li1,2*, Zheng Hu1*, Yufang Yin3, Rongzhang He1, Jian Hu1, Weihao Luo1, Jia Li1, Gebo Wen2, Li Xiao1, Kai Li1, Duanfang Liao4, Di-Xian Luo1,5

The Significance of Nuclear Factor‑Kappa B Signaling Pathway in Glioma: A Review

Xiaoshan Xu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Markerless Four‑Dimensional‑Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection‑Phase Sorting Using Prior Knowledge and Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

Lei Zhang1,2, Yawei Zhang2, You Zhang1,2,3, Wendy B. Harris1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,4, Jing Cai1,4,5, Lei Ren1,2

The Producing Capabilities of Interferon‑g and Interleukin‑10 of Spleen Cells in Primary and Metastasized Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells-implanted Mice

Yasuka Azuma1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Toshihiro Inagaki4, Eiichi Chihara2, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Nobuo Kondoh1

“Eating” Cancer Cells by Blocking CD47 Signaling: Cancer Therapy by Targeting the Innate Immune Checkpoint

Yi‑Rong Xiang, Li Liu

Glycosylation is Involved in Malignant Properties of Cancer Cells

Kazunori Hamamura1, Koichi Furukawa2

Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Era of Precision Medicine

Qing‑Hao Zhu1*, Qing‑Chao Shang1*, Zhi‑Hao Hu1*, Yuan Liu2, Bo Li1, Bo Wang1, An‑Hui Wang1

I‑Kappa‑B Kinase‑epsilon Activates Nuclear Factor‑kappa B and STAT5B and Supports Glioblastoma Growth but Amlexanox Shows Little Therapeutic Potential in These Tumors

Nadège Dubois1, Sharon Berendsen2, Aurélie Henry1,2, Minh Nguyen1, Vincent Bours1,
Pierre Alain Robe1,2

Suppressive Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Interferon‑g‑Producing Capability of Spleen Cells was Specifically Enhanced through Humoral Mediator(s) from Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sq‑1979 Cells In Vitro

Toshihiro Inagaki1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Eiichi Chihara4, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Shinichiro Sumitomo5, Nobuo Kondoh1

An Interplay Between MicroRNA and SOX4 in the Regulation of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Progression

Anjali Geethadevi1, Ansul Sharma2, Manish Kumar Sharma3, Deepak Parashar1

MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Prostate Cancer of African‑American and European‑American Men

Ernest K. Amankwah

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Screening Anticancer Agents

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Taoli Sun3, Shengping Zhang1, Hongyan Zhang1

Panobinostat and Its Combination with 3‑Deazaneplanocin‑A Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit In vitro Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in GOS‑3 Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Javier de la Rosa*, Alejandro Urdiciain*, Juan Jesús Aznar‑Morales, Bárbara Meléndez1,
Juan A. Rey2, Miguel A. Idoate3, Javier S. Castresana

Cancer Stem‑Like Cells Have Cisplatin Resistance and miR‑93 Regulate p21 Expression in Breast Cancer

Akiko Sasaki1, Yuko Tsunoda2, Kanji Furuya3, Hideto Oyamada1, Mayumi Tsuji1, Yuko Udaka1, Masahiro Hosonuma1, Haruna Shirako1, Nana Ichimura1, Yuji Kiuchi1

The Contribution of Hexokinase 2 in Glioma

Hui Liu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang3, Yanyang Tu1

The Mechanism of BMI1 in Regulating Cancer Stemness Maintenance, Metastasis, Chemo‑ and Radiation Resistance

Xiaoshan Xu, Zhen Wang, Nan Liu, Pengxing Zhang, Hui Liu, Jing Qi, Yanyang Tu

A Multisource Adaptive Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Technique for Versatile Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lei Zhang1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,3, Brittany Moore1,2, Silu Han1,2, Jing Cai1,2,4

Senescence and Cancer

Sulin Zeng1,2, Wen H. Shen2, Li Liu1

The “Wild”‑type Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Heterogeneity on Molecule Characteristics and Clinical Features

Yanhua Mou1, Quan Wang1, Bin Li1,2

Retreatment with Cabazitaxel in a Long‑Surviving Patient with Castration‑Resistant Prostate Cancer and Visceral Metastasis

Raquel Luque Caro, Carmen Sánchez Toro, Lucia Ochoa Vallejo

Therapy‑Induced Histopathological Changes in Breast Cancers: The Changing Role of Pathology in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Shazima Sheereen1, Flora D. Lobo1, Waseemoddin Patel2, Shamama Sheereen3,
Abhishek Singh Nayyar4, Mubeen Khan5

Glioma Research in the Era of Medical Big Data

Feiyifan Wang1, Christopher J. Pirozzi2, Xuejun Li1

Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Adenomas: Case Report and Literature Review

Jian‑Hong Zhong1,2, Kang Chen1, Bhavesh K. Ahir3, Qi Huang4, Ye Wu4, Cheng‑Cheng Liao1, Rong‑Rong Jia1, Bang‑De Xiang1,2, Le‑Qun Li1,2

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, Role in Cancer, and Novel Drug Target

Antonio Lucena‑Cacace1,2,3, Amancio Carnero1,2

Enhanced Anticancer Effect by Combination of Proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on Bladder Cancer Cells

Michael Zhang, Kelvin Zheng, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno

Molecular Insights Turning Game for Management of Ependymoma: A Review of Literature

Ajay Sasidharan, Rahul Krishnatry

IDH Gene Mutation in Glioma

Leping Liu1, Xuejun Li1,2

Challenges and Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Report and Literature Review

Gerard Cathal Millen1, Karen A. Manias1,2, Andrew C. Peet1,2, Jenny K. Adamski1

Assessing the Feasibility of Using Deformable Registration for Onboard Multimodality‑Based Target Localization in Radiation Therapy

Ge Ren1,2,3, Yawei Zhang1,2, Lei Ren1,2

Research Advancement in the Tumor Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Qing Du1, Xiaoying Ji2, Guangjing Yin3, Dengxian Wei3, Pengcheng Lin1, Yongchang Lu1,
Yugui Li3, Qiaohong Yang4, Shizhu Liu5, Jinliang Ku5, Wenbin Guan6, Yuanzhi Lu7

Novel Insights into the Role of Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Lei Zhang1, Guoyu Qiu2, Xiaohui Xu2, Yufeng Zhou3, Ruiming Chang4

Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Unusual Presenting Symptoms

Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal

The Prognostic Role of Lactate in Patients Who Achieved Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Dongni Ren1, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1,2

Inhibitory Effect of Hyaluronidase‑4 in a Rat Spinal Cord Hemisection Model

Xipeng Wang1,2, Mitsuteru Yokoyama2, Ping Liu3

Research and Development of Anticancer Agents under the Guidance of Biomarkers

Xiaohui Xu1, Guoyu Qiu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Ruling Jia1, Bo Zhao1

Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Mansoor C. Abdulla

Phosphorylation of BRCA1‑Associated Protein 1 as an Important Mechanism in the Evasion of Tumorigenesis: A Perspective

Guru Prasad Sharma1, Anjali Geethadevi2, Jyotsna Mishra3, G. Anupa4, Kapilesh Jadhav5,
K. S. Vikramdeo6, Deepak Parashar2

Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of Biliary‑Pancreatic System

Ge Zengzheng1, Huang-Sheng Ling2, Ming-Feng Li2, Xu Xiaoyan1, Yao Kai1, Xu Tongzhen3,
Ge Zengyu4, Li Zhou5

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Study the Biological Activity of Anticancer Agent

Guoyu Qiu1, Xiaohui Xu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Huan Yang5

Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Breast Tumors

Steven Lehrer1, Peter H. Rheinstein2

OSMCC: An Online Survival Analysis Tool for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai1, Qiang Wang1, Xiaoxiao Sun1, Yifang Dang1, JiaJia Lv1,2, Junfang Xin1, Wan Zhu3, Yongqiang Li1, Xinying Ji1, Xiangqian Guo1

Protective Activity of Selenium against 5‑Fluorouracil‑Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Beauty Tokoni Amgbare

Advances on the Components of Fibrinolytic System in Malignant Tumors

Zengzheng Ge1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Zengyu Ge2, Shaopeng Zhou3, Xiulin Li1, Kai Yao1, Lan Deng4

A Patient with Persistent Foot Swelling after Ankle Sprain: B‑Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mimicking Soft‑tissue Sarcoma

Crystal R. Montgomery‑Goecker1, Andrew A. Martin2, Charles F. Timmons3, Dinesh Rakheja3, Veena Rajaram3, Hung S. Luu3

Coenzyme Q10 and Resveratrol Abrogate Paclitaxel‑Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Loritta Wasini Harris

Progress in Clinical Follow‑up Study of Dendritic Cells Combined with Cytokine‑Induced Killer for Stomach Cancer

Ling Wang1,2, Run Wan1,2, Cong Chen1,2, Ruiliang Su1,2, Yumin Li1,2

Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy as the Initial Manifestation in Carcinoma of Cervix

Priyanka Priyaarshini1, Tapan Kumar Sahoo2

ABO Typing Error Resolution and Transfusion Support in a Case of an Acute Leukemia Patient Showing Loss of Antigen Expression

Debasish Mishra1, Gopal Krushna Ray1, Smita Mahapatra2, Pankaj Parida2

Protein Disulfide Isomerase A3: A Potential Regulatory Factor of Colon Epithelial Cells

Yang Li1, Zhenfan Huang2, Haiping Jiang3

Clinicopathological Association of p16 and its Impact on Outcome of Chemoradiation in Head‑and‑Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Patients in North‑East India

Srigopal Mohanty1, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi2, Nithin Raj Daniel3, Dulasi Raman Ponna4,
Ph. Madhubala Devi5, Laishram Jaichand Singh2

Potential Inhibitor for 2019‑Novel Coronaviruses in Drug Development

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Lei Zhang3, Lingxue Zhuang4, Wutang Jing5, Lupeng Ji6, Guoyu Qiu1

Best‑Match Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Mixed Autoantibodies

Debasish Mishra1, Dibyajyoti Sahoo1, Smita Mahapatra2, Ashutosh Panigrahi3

Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Pheochromocytoma

Nadeema Rafiq1, Tauseef Nabi2, Sajad Ahmad Dar3, Shahnawaz Rasool4

Comparison of Histopathological Grading and Staging of Breast Cancer with p53‑Positive and Transforming Growth Factor‑Beta Receptor 2‑Negative Immunohistochemical Marker Expression Cases

Palash Kumar Mandal1, Anindya Adhikari2, Subir Biswas3, Amita Giri4, Arnab Gupta5,
Arindam Bhattacharya6

Chemical Compositions and Antiproliferative Effect of Essential Oil of Asafoetida on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line and Female Wistar Rats

Seyyed Majid Bagheri1,2, Davood Javidmehr3, Mohammad Ghaffari1, Ehsan Ghoderti‑Shatori4

Cyclooxygenase‑2 Contributes to Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting an Immunosuppressive Environment

Mun Kyoung Kim1, Aidin Iravani2, Matthew K. Topham2,3

Potential role of CircMET as A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Yan Liu1,2,3,4#, Chen Cui1,2,3,4#, Jidong Liu1,2,3,4, Peng Lin1,2,3,4,Kai Liang1,2,3,4, Peng Su5, Xinguo Hou1,2,3,4, Chuan Wang1,2,3,4, Jinbo Liu1,2,3,4, Bo Chen6, Hong Lai1,2,3,4, Yujing Sun1,2,3,4* and Li Chen 1,2,3,4*

Cuproptosis-related Genes in Glioblastoma as Potential Therapeutic Targets

Zhiyu Xia1,2, Haotian Tian1, Lei Shu1,2, Guozhang Tang3, Zhenyu Han4, Yangchun Hu1*, Xingliang Dai1*

Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments by Porous Inorganic Nanocarriers

Jianfeng Xu1,2, Hanwen Zhang1,2, Xiaohui Song1,2, Yangong Zheng3, Qingning Li1,2,4*

Delayed (20 Years) post-surgical Esophageal Metastasis of Breast Cancer - A Case Report

Bowen Hu1#, Lingyu Du2#, Hongya Xie1, Jun Ma1, Yong Yang1*, Jie Tan2*

Subtyping of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Its Clinical Meaning

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai, Zhendong Lu, Fengling Wang, Muhammad Usman Akbar, Saadullah Khattak, Muhammad Badar, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Longxiang Xie, Yongqiang Li, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo

Construction of Glioma Prognosis Model and Exploration of Related Regulatory Mechanism of Model Gene

Suxia Hu, Abdusemer Reyimu, Wubi Zhou, Xiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Xia Chen, Weiqiang Li, Jingjing Dai

ESRP2 as a Non-independent Potential Biomarker-Current Progress in Tumors

Yuting Chen, Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo, Chengkuan Zhao, Shuyao Zhang

Resection of Bladder Tumors at the Ureteral Orifice Using a Hook Plasma Electrode: A Case Report

Jun Li, Ziyong Wang, Qilin Wang

Structural Characterization and Bioactivity for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides

Jinghua Qi1,2,  Hangping Chen3,Huaqing Lin2,4,Hongyuan Chen1,2,5* and Wen Rui2,3,5,6*

The Role of IL-22 in the Prevention of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Liver Injury

Xingli Qi1,2, Huaqing Lin2,3, Wen Rui2,3,4,5 and Hongyuan Chen1,2,3

RBM15 and YTHDF3 as Positive Prognostic Predictors in ESCC: A Bioinformatic Analysis Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)

Yulou Luo1, Lan Chen2, Ximing Qu3, Na Yi3, Jihua Ran4, Yan Chen3,5*

Mining and Analysis of Adverse Drug Reaction Signals Induced by Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Based on the FAERS Database

Xiumin Zhang1,2#, Xinyue Lin1,3#, Siman Su1,3#, Wei He3, Yuying Huang4, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xiaoshan Chen3, Jialin Zhong3, Chong Liu3, Wang Chen3, Chengcheng Xu3, Ping Yang5, Man Zhang5, Yanli Lei5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*

Advancements in Immunotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

Min Jiang1#, Rui Zheng1#, Ling Shao1, Ning Yao2, Zhengmao Lu1*

Tumor Regression after COVID-19 Infection in Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: A Case Report

Qiaoxin Lin1, Bin Liang1, Yangyang Li2, Ling Tian3*, Dianna Gu1*

Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Fever, Anemia, Hypoproteinemia: A Rare and Strange Case Report and Literature Review

Zhenghang Li1, Yuxian Wei1*

Construction of Cuproptosis-Related LncRNA Signature as a Prognostic Model Associated with Immune Microenvironment for Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Jiyao Yu1#, Shukai Zhang2#, Qingwen Ran3, Xuemei Li4,5,6*

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