Cancer Translational Medicine

Original Research | Open Access

Vol.8 (2022) | Issue-2 | Page No: 54-62

DOI: https://doi-ds.org/doilink/06.2022-83875985/A3

Quantified ADC Values and Attenuation Trends for Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Multiple b Values MRI

Jing Hu1#, Jingying Bu1#,Zhe Wang2#, Zhengdan Su2, Xiaoxian Wang2, Haiyao Pi3, Diliang Li2, Zhaoyang Pu4, Xin Tian1*

Affiliations  

1. Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China

2. Grade 2019 Medical Imaging Major, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China

3. Grade 2019 Clinical Medicine Major, Hebei Medical University,Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China

4. Grade 2017 Medical Imaging Major, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China

#These authors contributed equally

Corresponding Author

Address for correspondence: Dr. Xin Tian, Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No.215 Heping West Road, Xinhua District, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei, China. E‑mail: tianx25@139.com


Important Dates  

Date of Submission:   16-Feb-2022

Date of Acceptance:   18-Apr-2022

Date of Publication:   28-Jun-2022

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the value of multiple b values diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with total prostate specific antigen (TPSA) > 10.

Methods: A total of 64 participants were retrospectively enrolled, including 20 patients with prostate cancer (PCa group), 24 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH group), and 20 subjects with non-prostate disease (Normal prostate group) who underwent Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the same time. All cases underwent MRI plain scan and multiple b values DWI imaging scans (8 b-values, set at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1500 s/mm²). The lesion area and low signal area were selected as region of interest (ROI), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)  value of each ROI and each b-value-ADC signal intensity curve (Slopeb-ADC) were measured for analysis.

Results: Comparison of ADC values of ROI between lesion and normal area: When b ≥ 1000 s/mm2, the average values of ADC in PCa group were significantly lower than those in BPH group and Normal prostate group(P < 0.05). When b ≥ 400 s/mm², the Slopeb-ADC of PCa group was lower than that of the other two groups(P < 0.05). Comparison of ADC values of low signal ROI: When b≥100 s/mm², ADC values measured in low signal value region in PCa group were lower than those in BPH group(P < 0.05). When b = 400, 600 s/mm², the Slopeb-ADC of PCa group was lower than that of BPH group(P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The measurement of ADC value and Slopeb-ADC in low signal area and lesion area is helpful for the differential diagnosis of PCa and BPH, and Slopeb-ADC has important diagnostic value.

Keywords: Prostate Cancer, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Multiple B Values, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, Diffusion Weighted Imaging, Diagnosis

 


INTRODUCTION

Prostate cancer (PCa) has become one of the most common cancers in men and the fifth leading cause of death worldwide.[1],[2] In recent years, the incidence of PCa in China has been increasing significantly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important imaging examination method for the diagnosis of PCa, which plays an important role in tumor localization, qualitative analysis and staging. However, low-grade tumors and small tumors may be missed or misdiagnosed.[3] Pathological examination is the "gold standard" for PCa diagnosis, but needle biopsy is an invasive method. MRI examination before biopsy may avoid unnecessary biopsies.[4] MRI can be used as a screening method to determine which man with elevated total prostate specific antigen (TPSA) continue to undergo biopsy, which can both reduce unnecessary biopsies and improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsies.[5] Traditional MRI technology has certain limitations; It can only obtain morphological information, but cannot reflect the internal microstructure of tumor tissues. In this study, the combination of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) technology on the basis of conventional magnetic resonance scanning has been discussed to obtain the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The ADC values and Slopeb-ADC changes of PCa, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and normal prostate tissues with b values were analyzed to explore the change pattern, so as to improve the ability of differential diagnosis of benign and malignant prostate lesions.


METHODS

General information

A retrospective analysis was performed on 44 patients who received conventional MRI plain prostate scan in our hospital from January 2016 to October 2018. The selected subjects were pathologically diagnosed by prostate surgery or needle biopsy, and were divided into PCa group and BPH group, involving 20 and 24 cases, respectively. Twenty patients with normal prostate (Normal prostate group) who underwent pelvic MRI scan during the same period were included.

Inclusion criteria

Inclusion criteria for prostate disease group: (a) Patients signed informed consent; (b) Patients who did not undergo prostate surgery or radiotherapy before MRI examination; (c) Patients who were biopsied by rectal puncture and had clear pathological results; (d) Patients who could tolerate DWI and T2 weighted imaging (T2WI) examination; (e) Good mental status.

Inclusion criteria for the normal prostate group: (a) Complete high b-value DWI prostate MRI scan data with image quality meeting the diagnostic requirements; (b) No symptoms or signs of urological diseases and no abnormalities on rectal examination; (c) No prostate puncture biopsy surgery or related examinations; (d) Two experienced imaging physicians analyzed the morphology and signal characteristics of the prostate MRI and determined it to be normal. If the prostate gland is not clear, two physicians discuss and exclude the subject if there is no agreement. (e) The normal prostate MRI findings should be uniform and moderate signal structure on T1 weighted imaging (T1WI) and good signal structure on T2WI. At the same time, the intensity of T2WI signal should be uniform and high, and no abnormalities in DWI and ADC.

Exclusion criteria

Exclusion criteria: (a) Severe liver and kidney impairment; (b) History of prostate surgery; (c) Combination of other malignant tumors; (d) Patients with unclear MRI images and incomplete data that prevented data analysis; (e) Patients whose puncture biopsy sampling sites did not match the location of MRI images; (f) Patients whose lesions were too small to outline the area of interest for data analysis.

Examination method

A Philips ACHIEVA 3.0 TMR scanner with 8-channel phased-array body coil in the abdomen was used. Before the scan, the patient's bladder had been moderately full after an 8-hour fast, and the examination was performed in the supine position with the head advanced, . The prostate was first scanned with conventional axial, sagittal and coronal T2WI compression lipids as well as axial T1WI and T2WI. After the conventional SE sequence scan, multiple b values DWI scan was used, with b values of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1500 s/mm2, DWI was performed using SE-EPI sequence with the following scan parameter settings: TR=1300 ms, TE=66 ms, excitation times (NSA) 2 times, layer thickness and layer spacing are 4 mm and 1 mm respectively, field of view (FOV) 240 mm×240 mm, matrix 128×128.

Image processing

The scanned multiple b values DWI images are automatically transferred to a post-processing workstation, and ADC images are generated using Extended MR Work Space 2.6.3.2 post-processing software.

Region of interest (ROI) selection criteria

ROI selection between lesions and normal areas: Based on the T2WI and DWI images and referring to the pathological biopsy results, the abnormal signal area was selected as the ROI on the image with b=0 s/mm2. The ROI selection was based on the principle of avoiding calcification and hemorrhage, outlining a range smaller than the lesion range and trying to exceed 2/3 of the lesion area. The ROI in PCa group and BPH group were selected, with 50 in each group. Other 50 ROIs were selected from 20 patients with non-prostate disease (normal prostate patients). The ADC values and Slopeb-ADC of each ROI were measured separately and analyzed statistically.

Slopeb-ADC = (ADCb-ADCb1500) /n (n = 7,6,5,4,3,2)(1)

Selection of ROI of low signal: The ROI was selected on the b=0 s/mm2 image, and the image signal was lower when compared with the same lateral muscle [Figure 1]. 44 ROIs of low signal areas were selected, including 24 ROIs of low signal areas in the BPH group and 20 ROIs of low signal areas in the PCa group. The ADC value change pattern and characteristics of ROI in the low-signal area for cases in the PCa group and BPH group were compared, and each Slopeb-ADC was calculated by applying the equation (1).

 

Figure 1.
Figure 1. ROI of the low signal region

 

Differences in ROI selection between lesions and low signal: the selection of lesions of prostate diseases is mostly high signal or mixed signal. The low signal of DWI reflects that the dispersion of water molecules is almost not restricted, and it can move freely, usually representing the non-lesion area. However, we found that diseases also can appear in the low-signal region. Therefore, the value of multi b value DWI technology in differentiating prostate cancer and prostatic hyperplasia was further confirmed by comparing the ADC value of ROI in the low-signal region between PCa group and BPH group and the difference between each b-value-ADC signal intensity curve.

Statistical methods

The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software, and the ADC values and Slopeb-ADC of BPH, PCa and Normal prostate groups at different b values and different measurement sites of ROI were counted. The measurement data were first tested for normality (Normality test), and if they conformed to the Homogeneity of variance test, one-way ANOVA was used; if they did not conform to the normal distribution, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison. When P < 0.05 the difference was considered statistically significant, and P < 0.001 was considered statistically highly significant. The ADC values and Slopeb-ADC for different b values in the three groups of ROIs were recorded and expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Slopeb-ADC values from b = 100 s/mm2 to b = 1500 s/mm2 were selected for statistical analysis of the data, and the line graphs of their Slopeb-ADC changes were recorded.


RESULTS

Clinical data of BPH group, PCa group and Normal prostate group

There were 64 participants including 24 patients with BPH, 20 patients with PCa and 20 participants with normal prostate. The range of age of the BPH group was 52-83 years, with a mean value of 68.95 years; the range of age of PCa group was 60-73 years, with a mean value of 68.67 years; the range of age of Normal prostate group was 56-68 years, with a mean value of 60.25 years. By statistical analysis, there was no statistically significant difference between the ages of BPH group, PCa group and Normal prostate group (P > 0.05).

The range of TPSA values in the BPH group was 9.94-20.01 ng/mL, with a mean value of 14.97 ng/mL; the range of TPSA values in the PCa group was 16.27-26.58 ng/mL, with a mean value of 22.52 ng/mL. By statistical analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between the TPSA values in the BPH and PCa groups (P < 0.05) [Table 1].

 

Table 1. Analysis of age in the BPH, PCa, and Normal prostate groups
Table 1. Analysis of age in the BPH, PCa, and Normal prostate groups

 

Comparison of average ADC values between the BPH group, the PCa group and the Normal prostate group

In PCa group, the ROI showed high signal on multiple b values DWI and low signal on the corresponding ADC image. In BPH group, the signal of the ROI was not uniform on multiple b values DWI; The average values of ADC in the three groups of ROI gradually decreased with the increase of b value, showing a negative correlation. When b≥ 1000 s/mm2, the average values of ADC in PCa group were significantly lower than those in BPH group and Normal prostate group, and the change of ADC value had a significant negative correlation with b value, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). When b = 100, 200 and 400 s/mm2,the average values of ADC in BPH group were slightly higher than those in Normal prostate group. When b = 600, 800 and 1000 s/mm², the average values of ADC in BPH group were lower than those in Normal prostate group respectively. For all the above different b values, the average values of ADC in the BPH group were similar with those in Normal prostate group (P > 0.05) [Table 2].

 

Table 2.
Table 2. Average values and standard deviations of ADC in DWI with different b-values for BPH group, PCa group and Normal prostate group

 

Comparison of Slopeb-ADC of each b value in BPH group, PCa group and Normal prostate group

The Slopeb-ADC of each b value in PCa group was lower than that in the other two groups. When b = 100, 200, 400, 800 s/mm², the Slopeb-ADC in BPH group was higher than that in Normal prostate group. When b = 600, 1000 s/mm², the Slopeb-ADC in BPH group was lower than that in Normal prostate group [Figure 2 and Table 3]. When b < 400 s/mm², there was no significant difference between Slopeb-ADC in the PCa group and the other two groups (P > 0.05). When b ≥ 400 s/mm², the differences between Slopeb-ADC in PCa group and the other two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between Slopeb-ADC in BPH group and Normal prostate group (P > 0.05).

 

Figure 2.
Figure 2. Slopeb-ADC of prostate lesion and normal tissue at different b-values

 

Table 3.
Table 3. Slopeb-ADC of prostate lesion and Normal tissue at different b-values

 

Comparison of ADC values measured in low signal between BPH group and PCa group

When b ≥ 100 s/mm², ADC values of PCa group were lower than those of BPH group. The ADC measured in low signal value region between PCa group and BPH group was significantly different (P < 0.05) [Table 4 ].

 

Table 4.
Table 4. Comparison of ADC values measured in low signal region between BPH group and PCa group

 

Comparison of Slopeb-ADC measured between BPH group and PCa group in low signal area

The Slopeb-ADC of PCa group is lower than that of BPH group. When b = 400, 600 s/mm², the difference of Slopeb-ADC between BPH and PCa in the low signal value region was statistically significant (P < 0.05) [Figure 3 and Table 5].

 

Figure 3.
Figure 3. Comparison of the Slopeb-ADC measured in low signal region between BPH group and PCa group

 

Table 5.
Table 5. Comparison of the Slopeb-ADC measured in low signal region between BPH group and PCa group


DISCUSSION

Diagnostic efficacy of ADC and Slopeb-ADC in prostate lesions

Diffusion weighted imaging detects the movement of protons in water molecules, their diffusion and the microscopic changes at the cell level. ADC value is a quantitative reflection of the diffusion rate of water molecules, and a larger value indicates a faster diffusion of water molecules, so as to reflect the internal spatial distribution of imaging materials.[6],[7],[8],[9] When the structure of prostate tissue changes, DWI examination can show that the diffusion characteristics of the tissue also change. Prostatic hyperplasia causes the central region to become larger, denser and more interstitial. The acinar cavity can be endocrine and exfoliated in the acinar cavity. So that the degree of restriction of water molecules is higher than that of normal prostate tissue, but significantly lower than that of prostate cancer. ADC images of BPH often show equal or slightly lower signal, and the signal is often uneven.[10] However, there are a large number of closely arranged tumor cells in prostate cancer tissue. The content of extracellular fluid is reduced, and the extracellular space is compressed and becomes smaller, and the diffusion movement of water molecules outside the cell is limited, corresponding to the significant decrease in ADC value. Our study demonstrated that ADC values obtained in PCa group were lower than those in the other two groups at b ≥ 1000 s/mm2, while there was no statistical difference in ADC value between BPH group and normal prostate group. This is consistent with the research results of Yao W, Ingole SM, Chatterjee A et al.[11],[12],[13]

According to the principle of DWI, with the increase of b value, T2 weight becomes smaller and smaller, and the difference of DWI signals between tissues is mainly determined by the dispersion weight brought by b values. DWI signals of all tissues decrease with the increase of b value, but the Slopeb-ADC of PCa is lower than that of BPH. This finding might be due to the presence of more mucin and fluid within PCa cells. Therefore, the PCa signal decays more slowly compared to prostatic hyperplasia. However, the extracellular space of BPH is larger compared to PCa. Therefore, it is sensitive to dispersion and the signal attenuation is fast. There were no significant differences between the BPH group and the Normal prostate group in this study. When b < 400 s/mm², there was no significant difference between PCa group and the other two groups in Slopeb-ADC. When b ≥ 400 s/mm², the Slopeb-ADC of PCa group was significantly different from that of the other two groups (P < 0.05). Considering that at b < 400 s/mm², the changes of tissue structure reflected by the obtained tissue information and ADC values at this stage were consistent. With the increase of b value, the ADC value could more closely reflect the diffusion characteristics of water molecules in cells. When b ≥ 400 s/mm², the changes of ADC value in PCa group were more obvious than those in the other two groups.

Diagnostic efficacy of ADC and Slopeb-ADC in low signal region of prostate

In the low signal region, ADC values of PCa group were lower than those of BPH group when b ≥ 100 s/mm², and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This result was also consistent with the research result of Xuezhen Yang.[10] The patients with PCa showed uniform low-signal nodules in the central area of T2WI sequence, while patients with BPH showed slightly lower signal nodules on the right side of the central area. The ADC value of PCa group was significantly lower than that of the benign group, and the difference in ADC value between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05).[10] Normally, the prostatic acinus radiates from the urethra into the prostate, but in cancerous tissue, this order can be disrupted, malignant epithelial cells and glands are irregularly distributed, and the internal structure of malignant glands can be disturbed. In addition, the water-rich cytoplasm structure changes with the change of cancer cells, and the cell density and nuclear/cytoplasm ratio of cancer tissues increases. The normal glandular structure of prostate cancer is destroyed, the cancer cells accumulate, and the fibrous stroma changes the glandular structure. Due to the loss of glandular structure, the gap is narrowed and diffusion is limited. Since DWI is sensitive to diffusion changes, such changes occur as ADC values decrease. We believe that in the low signal area, ADC values detected in PCa group are lower than those in BPH group, which may be related to the above changes in prostate morphology.[14],[15] The results showed that PCa group presented low signal on T2WI (b = 0 s/mm² is equivalent to T2WI), and there was no statistically significant difference between PCa group and T2WI (P > 0.05). At low b values, DWI reflects micro-circulation perfusion effect, but it cannot accurately reflect the true diffusion effect of water molecules. Therefore, ADC value in PCa group is higher than that in BPH group when b = 0 s/mm².[16]

In the low signal region, the Slopeb-ADC of PCa group was lower than that of BPH group. When b = 400 and 600 s/mm², there was statistically significant difference in low signal region between BPH group and PCa group (P < 0.05). This analysis may be due to the smaller extracellular space and slower signal attenuation in PCa compared to BPH. Pathologically, PCa cells proliferate rapidly and have larger nuclei. The structure of glandular ducts and acinus is disordered or disappeared, the diffusion of water molecules is significantly limited, and the ADC value is significantly reduced. BPH includes glandular and fibrous interstitial hyperplasia. The hyperplasia of glandular ducts and acinus may be accompanied by increased secretion, resulting in high water molecular content, relatively unrestricted diffusion and relatively high ADC value. When b = 100 and 200 s/mm², there was no statistically significant difference between the BPH group and PCa group in the low signal area, which may be due to the more aggressive prostate cancer tissue leading to increase in neovascularization, vascular permeability and growth. The rapid growth of blood vessels leads to a significantly larger endothelial space than the surrounding normal blood vessels, resulting in increased neovascularization, vascular permeability and growth due to more aggressive tumor. The rapid growth of blood vessels resulted in the space between endothelial cells and prostate hyperplasia tissue being similar, so there was no statistical significance in the low signal area between BPH group and PCa group (P > 0.05).[6] At the same time, higher b values also leads to prolonged TE time and excessive DWI image noise, which reduces the image signal-to-noise ratio or even deformation, and cannot distinguish the anatomical structure of the peripheral prostate band well. Therefore, in this study, images with b = 400 and 600 s/mm² have the best display.

Previous studies have mostly focused on the signal characteristics of optimal b-value or multiple b values DWI imaging for identifying benign and malignant prostate lesions. The present study not only discussed the ADC value variation characteristics of benign and malignant prostate lesions, but also provided further differential diagnosis based on the Slopeb-ADC. The results of this study showed that the ADC values and Slopeb-ADC of the PCa group in the low-signal and lesion areas were lower than those of the BPH group at certain b values, thus allowing identification of the same disease by comparing the imaging data of the patients seen with those of PCa and BPH patients based on the higher or lower values. Further studies can also be done to calculate the floating range of ADC values and Slopeb-ADC in PCa patients and BPH patients under multi-b-value conditions, respectively, so that the patient's disease type can be targeted by analyzing the interval in which the patient's imaging data are located which can provide important statistical support for clinical diagnosis compared with traditional visual identification and local data comparison. Therefore, the combined application of multiple b values DWI scans and analysis of the corresponding change in ADC value characteristics can better reflect the histopathological changes.

Limitations of this study: (a) The size of quantitative index ADC value is affected by many subjective and objective factors, such as different brands of equipment, post-processing software, field intensity, b value, and ROI. At present, PCa has no unified diagnostic standard for ADC value, leading to the lack of uniformity of quantitative diagnostic indexes. However, the measurement of Slopeb-ADC at medium and high b values can avoid the differences caused by equipment and software to a certain extent, and carry out effective horizontal comparison, which can be used as the focus of clinical application and research in the future. (b) Due to the limitation of the number of cases, the identification point threshold of quantitative data cannot be determined. At the same time, it is a retrospective study. Due to the deformation of some tissues, it is difficult for the tissue section level to be consistent with the imaging level, thus unable to provide a completely accurate image-pathological tissue correspondence, which needs to be further strengthened in future studies.

In conclusion, according to the signal characteristics of multiple b values DWI, the variation characteristics of ADC value and the difference of Slopeb-ADC can effectively distinguish and diagnose benign and malignant prostate lesions. This study shares an important multi-level experience. The preliminary experience shows that the multiple b values DWI technology has great potential and is worth popularizing in practical work.


CONCLUSION

ADC values in the lesion area and low signal area have diagnostic value for prostate cancer, and high b value can obtain relatively higher diagnostic efficiency.  Slopeb-ADC in the lesion area and low signal area also has diagnostic value for prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer, and Slopeb-ADC can improve the stability of MRI quantitative analysis to a certain extent.

 

FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND SPONSORSHIP

This work is supported by the Innovative Experimental Plan of Hebei Medical University (No. USIP2021291, to Xin Tian). We are grateful for the support from the university-level fund of Hebei Medical University and the equipment support from The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, which provided the material basis for this study and allowed the subject to advance smoothly.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

There are no conflicts of interest.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, and all patients had given their signed informed consent to participate.


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Guifang He1, Yanjiao Hu2, Fuguo Dong3, Changchang Liu1, Duo Cai1, Shihai Liu1*


Advances in Pathogenesis and Non-surgical Therapy of Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma

Yichen Wu1, Jia Chen2*


Quercetin Inhibits the Proliferation and Migration of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma by Targeting the Prognostic-related Gene MMP1 via Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Zhenhua Zu1,2#, Zhongguo Zhu3#, Zhiyu Xia2, Hongrang Chen1*, Yongsheng Li1*


Huge Lung Fibroleiomyomatous Hamartoma in the Pleural Cavity – A Case report

Minghui Liu1#, Xin Li1#, Hongbing Zhang1, Fan Ren1, Ming Dong1, Chunqiu Xia1, Jun Chen1,2*


Increased Expression of IL-17A, IL-6, STAT3, TGF-β, and VEGF: Potential Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer?

Zishen Xiao1, Chengxia Bai1, Teng Zhao1, Jiayu Lin1, Lijuan Yang1, Jian Liu2, Zhenjiang Wang1, Ying Sun3,4, Yanbo Liu1*


Identification of NSD2 as a Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Wei Zhao1#, Xinyu Xiao1#, Yu Gao1,2, Shanshan Liu3, Xiuzhen Zhang1, Changhong Yang1, Qiling Peng1, Ning Jiang2*, Jianwei Wang1*


Quercetin Inhibits Glioma Proliferation by Targeting CDK1 and CCNB1 - Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Huaixu Li1#, Peng Gao1#, Haotian Tian1, Zhenyu Han2, Xingliang Dai1*, Hongwei Cheng1*


Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Yttrium-90 Microspheres in Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Applications and recent advances

Wei Wang1, Dawei Xie1, Bing Li1, Minghao Chen1*


Irreversible Electroporation in Pancreatic Cancer – Applications and recent advances

Yuanyuan Sun1, Qian Li2, Jia Hu2, Yanfang Liu2*, Xiaosong Li2*


Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T‑stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Shengen Yi, Xiongjian Cui, Li Xiong, Xiaofeng Deng, Dongni Pei, Yu Wen, Xiongying Miao


MicroRNAs are Related to Rituximab in Combination with Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone Resistance in Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

Haibo Huang1, Junjiao Gu1, Shuna Yao1, Zhihua Yao1, Yan Zhao1, Qingxin Xia2, Jie Ma2, Ling Mai3, Shujun Yang1, Yanyan Liu1


Comparison of Intra-voxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in the Evaluation of Focal Malignant Liver Masses

Jinrong Qu1, Xiang Li1, Lei Qin2, Lifeng Wang1, Junpeng Luo1, Jianwei Zhang1, Hongkai Zhang1, Jing Li1, Fei Sun3, Shouning Zhang1, Yanle Li1, Cuicui Liu1, Hailiang Li1


Extracting Breathing Signal Using Fourier Transform from Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Jing Cai1,2, Yilin Liu2, Fangfang Yin1,2


Split End Family RNA Binding Proteins: Novel Tumor Suppressors Coupling Transcriptional Regulation with RNA Processing

Hairui Su1, Yanyan Liu2, Xinyang Zhao1


Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

Pengxing  Zhang1, Xiaoling Pang2,3, Yanyang Tu1,4


Associations of Age and Chemotherapy with Late Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Toxicity in a Hypofractionated Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Schedule in Post‑mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients

Mohammad Akram1, Ghufran Nahid1, Shahid Ali Siddiqui1, Ruquiya Afrose2


Monitoring of Disease Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia‑chronic Phase Patients Treated with Indian Generic Veenat (NATCO) Imatinib Mesylate: A Tertiary Care Experience

Khushboo Dewan, Tathagat Chatterjee


Review of Cancer Immunotherapy: Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death‑ligand 1 Antibodies

Tengfei Zhang1,2, Ling Cao1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongli Yue1, Yu Ping1, Hong Li1, Lan Huang1, Yi Zhang1,3,4,5


Systematic Review of MicroRNAs and its Therapeutic Potential in Glioma

Nan Liu1, Yanyang Tu2


The Involvement of p53‑miR‑34a‑CDK4 Signaling During the Development of Cervical Cancer

Huijun Zuo, Jieqi Xiong, Hongwei Chen, Sisun Liu, Qiaoying Gong, Fei Guo


Unusual Clinical Presentation of a Rare Type of Breast Malignancy: A Case Report and a Short Review of Literature

Nadeesha J. Nawarathna1, Navam R. Kumarasinghe1, Palitha Rathnayake2,
Ranjith J. K. Seneviratne1


Sweet’s Syndrome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t (9:22)

Khushboo Dewan, Shailaja Shukla


Analysis of the Correlationship between Prostate Specific Antigen Related Variables and Risk Factor in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma

Daoyuan Wang1, Tiejun Yang2, Yongqiang Zou1, Xinqiang Yang1


Recent Progress in Genetic and Epigenetic Profile of Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Zhengxi He1, Bin Li1,2


Strategies for Management of Spinal Metastases: A Comprehensive Review

Zhantao Deng, Bin Xu, Jiewen Jin, Jianning Zhao, Haidong Xu


Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

Xia Mao, Yanqiong Zhang, Na Lin


Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yupeng Lei1, Hongxia Chen2, Pi Liu1, Xiaodong Zhou1


Expression Characteristics of miR‑10b in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Gang Li, Yunteng Zhao, Jianqi Wang, Haoran Huang, Mengwen Zhang


An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

Zonggao Shi, M. Sharon Stack


Promoter Methylated Tumor Suppressor Genes in Glioma

Yingduan Cheng1, Yanyang Tu2, Pei Liang3


Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

Chenyang Liu1*, Qian Qian2*, Shen Geng1, Wenkui Sun1, Yi Shi1


Functional Perspective and Implications of Gene Expression by Noncoding RNAs

Xiaoshuang Yan1, Huanyu Xu2, Zhonghai Yan3


Expression of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Multiple Myeloma Patients after Treatment with the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib

James Joseph Driscoll


miR‑505 Downregulates 6‑Phosphofructo‑2‑Kinase/ Fructose‑2,6‑Biphosphatase 4 to Promote Cell Death in Glioblastoma

Esther H. Chung, Hongwei Yang, Hongyan Xing, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson


Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosing Bone Tumors

Sonal Mahajan1, Akash Arvind Saoji2, Anil Agrawal1


Histone H2A and H2B Deubiquitinase in Developmental Disease and Cancer

Demeng Chen1, Caifeng Dai2, Yizhou Jiang3


Genetic Characteristics of Glioblastoma: Clinical Implications of Heterogeneity

Qian Li1, Yanyang Tu1,2


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Normal Platelet Count

Khushboo Dewan, Kiran Agarwal


Galanin is a Novel Epigenetic Silenced Functional Tumor Suppressor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Shengkun Sun1*, Axiang Xu1*, Guoqiang Yang1, Yingduan Cheng2

 


Selenium Dioxide Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells via Regulating Apoptosis-related Let-7a MicroRNA and Proteins

Sisun Liu1, Jieqi Xiong2, Ling Guo3, Min Xiu1,4, Feng He1,4, Yuanlei Lou5, Fei Guo6,7


Low Expression of Polo‑like Kinase 1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Liver Cancer

Weixia Li1, Kunpeng Liu1, Dechen Lin2, Xin Xu2, Haizhen Lu3, Xinyu Bi4, Mingrong Wang2


Extracorporeal Photopheresis for Steroid‑refractory Chronic Graft‑versus‑host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Runzhe Chen1, Baoan Chen1, Peter Dreger2, Michael Schmitt2, Anita Schmitt2


Glucans and Cancer: Historical Perspective

Petr Sima1, Luca Vannucci1, Vaclav Vetvicka2


Implications of Circadian Rhythm Regulation by microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer

Song Wu1, Andrew Fesler2, Jingfang Ju2


BCL2 Family, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, and Beyond

Haiming Dai1, X. Wei Meng2, Scott H. Kaufmann2


Quantum Dot‑based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications

Li Zhou1, Jingzhe Yan2, Lingxia Tong3, Xuezhe Han4, Xuefeng Wu5, Peng Guo6


CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

Lu Huang1, Weiguo Lv2, Xiaofeng Zhao1


Etiological Trends in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Institutional Study

Varsha Salian, Chethana Dinakar, Pushparaja Shetty, Vidya Ajila


Effect of Irinotecan Combined with Cetuximab on Liver Function in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer with Liver Metastases

Yan Liang1, Yang Li2, Xin Li3, Jianfu Zhao4


The Role of Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer: Challenges for Targeted Therapy, Immune Modulating Treatment, Early Detection, and Less Invasive Operations

Khaled Kyle Wong1, Zhirong Qian2, Yi Le3


Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Natural Products

Weidong Li1,2*, Cihui Chen3*, Zheng Liu2, Baojin Hua1


The Potential of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Focus on Breast Cancer

Mahnaz M. Kazi, Trupti I. Trivedi, Toral P. Kobawala, Nandita R. Ghosh


Imaging‑driven Digital Biomarkers

Enrico Capobianco


Target‑Matching Accuracy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer: An Investigation Based on Four‑Dimensional Digital Human Phantom

Jing Cai1,2, Kate Turner2, Xiao Liang2, W. Paul Segars2,3, Chris R. Kelsey1, David Yoo1, Lei Ren1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2


Downregulation of Death‑associated Protein Kinase 3 and Caspase‑3 Correlate to the Progression and Poor Prognosis of Gliomas

Ye Song, Tianshi Que, Hao Long, Xi’an Zhang, Luxiong Fang, Zhiyong Li, Songtao Qi


Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

Ana Paula Cleto Marolla1, Jaques Waisberg2, Gabriela Tognini Saba2, Demétrius Eduardo Germini2, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal1


Melanoma Antigen Gene Family in the Cancer Immunotherapy

Fengyu Zhu1, Yu Liang1, Demeng Chen2, Yang Li1


Combined Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Collision Tumor Variation

Kaijun Huang1, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios1, Wanhua Yang2, Rajeev L. Balmiki3


Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line (Michigan Cancer Foundation‑7)

Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini


Impact of Age on the Biochemical Failure and Androgen Suppression after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men

Nigel P. Murray1,2, Eduardo Reyes1,3, Nelson Orellana1, Cynthia Fuentealba1, Omar Jacob1


Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: 35 Years of a Single Institution’s Experience

Rana I. Mahmood1,2, Mohammed Aldehaim1,3, Fazal Hussain4, Tusneem A. Elhassan4,
Zubeir A. Khan5, Muhammad A. Memon6


Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Therapy: A Discussion

Yeling Ouyang1, Xi Chen2, Chunyun Zhang1, Vichitra Bunyamanop1, Jianfeng Guo3


The Progress in Molecular Biomarkers of Gliomas

Jing Qi1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1


Correlation between Paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 and its Therapeutic Efficacy and Severe Toxicities in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Shuyao Zhang1*, Muyin Sun2*, Yun Yuan3*, Miaojun Wang4*, Yuqi She1*, Li Zhou5, Congzhu Li5, Chen Chen1, Shengqi Zhang4


Identifying Gaps and Relative Opportunities for Discovering Membrane Proteomic Biomarkers of Triple‑negative Breast Cancer as a Translational Priority

Bhooma Venkatraman


The Molecular Mechanism and Regulatory Pathways of Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Wang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2


Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems and Three‑dimensional Cell Cultures in Cancer Treatments and Research

Wenjin Shi1, Ding Weng2,3, Wanting Niu2,3


Choline Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TRAIL in the Treatment of Colorectal Tumors and Overcomes TRAIL Resistance

Juan Carlos Lacal1, Ladislav Andera2


MicroRNA Regulating Metabolic Reprogramming in Tumor Cells: New Tumor Markers

Daniel Otero‑Albiol, Blanca Felipe‑Abrio


Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Genome‑wide Perspective

José M. Santos‑Pereira1, Sandra Muñoz‑Galván2


Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide+ Metabolism Biomarkers in Malignant Gliomas

Manuel P. Jiménez‑García, Eva M. Verdugo‑Sivianes, Antonio Lucena‑Cacace


Patient-derived Xenografts as Models for Personalized Medicine Research in Cancer

Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero


Genome‑wide Transcriptome Analysis of Prostate Cancer Tissue Identified Overexpression of Specific Members of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus‑K Family

Behnam Sayanjali1,2


Clinical Utility of Interleukin‑18 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Reecha A. Parikh, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Mahnaz M. Kazi, Nandita R. Ghosh


Current and Future Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced Soft‑tissue Sarcoma beyond Anthracyclines and Ifosfamide

Nadia Hindi1,2, Javier Martin‑Broto1,2


The Genomic Organization and Function of IRX1 in Tumorigenesis and Development

Pengxing Zhang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2


Stem Cell‑based Approach in Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer Management

Yi‑Zhou Jiang1, Demeng Chen2


Mutation Detection with a Liquid Biopsy 96 Mutation Assay in Cancer Patients and Healthy Donors

Aaron Yun Chen, Glenn D. Braunstein, Megan S. Anselmo, Jair A. Jaboni, Fernando Troy Viloria, Julie A. Neidich, Xiang Li, Anja Kammesheidt


The Application of Estrogen Receptor‑1 Mutations’ Detection through Circulating Tumor DNA in Breast Cancer

Binliang Liu, Yalan Yang, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma


Circulating MicroRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs: Liquid Biomarkers in Thoracic Cancers

Pablo Reclusa1, Anna Valentino1, Rafael Sirera1,2, Martin Frederik Dietrich3, Luis Estuardo Raez3, Christian Rolfo1


Exosomes Biology: Function and Clinical Implications in Lung Cancer

Martin Frederik Dietrich1, Christian Rolfo2, Pablo Reclusa2, Marco Giallombardo2, Anna Valentino2, Luis E. Raez1


Circulating Tumor DNA: A Potential Biomarker from Solid Tumors’ Monitor to Anticancer Therapies

Ting Chen1,2, Rongzhang He1,3, Xinglin Hu1,3,4, Weihao Luo1, Zheng Hu1,3, Jia Li1, Lili Duan1, Yali Xie1,2, Wenna Luo1,2, Tan Tan1,2, Di‑Xian Luo1,2


Novel Molecular Multilevel Targeted Antitumor Agents

Poonam Sonawane1, Young A. Choi1, Hetal Pandya2, Denise M. Herpai1, Izabela Fokt3,
Waldemar Priebe3, Waldemar Debinski1


Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Effects and Clinical Relevance

Pei Liang, Michael Gao Jr.


Stemness‑related Markers in Cancer

Wenxiu Zhao1, Yvonne Li2, Xun Zhang1


Autophagy Regulated by miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Resistance

Andrew Fesler1, Hua Liu1, Ning Wu1,2, Fei Liu3, Peixue Ling3, Jingfang Ju1,3


Gastric Metastases Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: A Brief Literature Review

Simona Gurzu1,2,3, Marius Alexandru Beleaua1, Laura Banias2, Ioan Jung1


Possibility of Specific Expression of the Protein Toxins at the Tumor Site with Tumor‑specialized Promoter

Liyuan Zhou1,2, Yujun Li1,2, Changchen Hu3, Binquan Wang1,2


SKI‑178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models

Jeremy A. Hengst1,2, Taryn E. Dick1,2, Arati Sharma1, Kenichiro Doi3, Shailaja Hegde4, Su‑Fern Tan5, Laura M. Geffert1,2, Todd E. Fox5, Arun K. Sharma1, Dhimant Desai1, Shantu Amin1, Mark Kester5, Thomas P. Loughran5, Robert F. Paulson4, David F. Claxton6, Hong‑Gang Wang3, Jong K. Yun1,2


A T‑cell Engager‑armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to Target the Tumor Stroma

Feng Yu1, Bangxing Hong1, Xiao‑Tong Song1,2,3


Real‑world Experience with Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration‑resistant Prostate Cancer

Yasar Ahmed1, Nemer Osman1, Rizwan Sheikh2, Sarah Picardo1, Geoffrey Watson1


Combination of Interleukin‑11Rα Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‑cells and Programmed Death‑1 Blockade as an Approach to Targeting Osteosarcoma Cells In vitro

Hatel Rana Moonat, Gangxiong Huang, Pooja Dhupkar, Keri Schadler, Nancy Gordon,
Eugenie Kleinerman


Efficacy and Safety of Paclitaxel‑based Therapy and Nonpaclitaxel‑based Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

Tongwei Wu, Xiao Yang, Min An, Wenqin Luo, Danxian Cai, Xiaolong Qi


Motion Estimation of the Liver Based on Deformable Image Registration: A Comparison Between Four‑Dimensional‑Computed Tomography and Four‑Dimensional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xiao Liang1, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2, Yilin Liu1, Brian Czito2, Manisha Palta2, Mustafa Bashir3, Jing Cai1,2


A Feasibility Study of Applying Thermal Imaging to Assist Quality Assurance of High‑Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Xiaofeng Zhu1, Yu Lei1, Dandan Zheng1, Sicong Li1, Vivek Verma1, Mutian Zhang1, Qinghui Zhang1, Xiaoli Tang2, Jun Lian2, Sha X. Chang2, Haijun Song3, Sumin Zhou1, Charles A. Enke1


Role of Exosome microRNA in Breast Cancer

Wang Qu, Ma Fei, Binghe Xu


Recent Progress in Technological Improvement and Biomedical Applications of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas System

Yanlan Li1,2*, Zheng Hu1*, Yufang Yin3, Rongzhang He1, Jian Hu1, Weihao Luo1, Jia Li1, Gebo Wen2, Li Xiao1, Kai Li1, Duanfang Liao4, Di-Xian Luo1,5


The Significance of Nuclear Factor‑Kappa B Signaling Pathway in Glioma: A Review

Xiaoshan Xu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1


Markerless Four‑Dimensional‑Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection‑Phase Sorting Using Prior Knowledge and Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

Lei Zhang1,2, Yawei Zhang2, You Zhang1,2,3, Wendy B. Harris1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,4, Jing Cai1,4,5, Lei Ren1,2


The Producing Capabilities of Interferon‑g and Interleukin‑10 of Spleen Cells in Primary and Metastasized Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells-implanted Mice

Yasuka Azuma1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Toshihiro Inagaki4, Eiichi Chihara2, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Nobuo Kondoh1


“Eating” Cancer Cells by Blocking CD47 Signaling: Cancer Therapy by Targeting the Innate Immune Checkpoint

Yi‑Rong Xiang, Li Liu


Glycosylation is Involved in Malignant Properties of Cancer Cells

Kazunori Hamamura1, Koichi Furukawa2


Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Era of Precision Medicine

Qing‑Hao Zhu1*, Qing‑Chao Shang1*, Zhi‑Hao Hu1*, Yuan Liu2, Bo Li1, Bo Wang1, An‑Hui Wang1


I‑Kappa‑B Kinase‑epsilon Activates Nuclear Factor‑kappa B and STAT5B and Supports Glioblastoma Growth but Amlexanox Shows Little Therapeutic Potential in These Tumors

Nadège Dubois1, Sharon Berendsen2, Aurélie Henry1,2, Minh Nguyen1, Vincent Bours1,
Pierre Alain Robe1,2


Suppressive Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Interferon‑g‑Producing Capability of Spleen Cells was Specifically Enhanced through Humoral Mediator(s) from Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sq‑1979 Cells In Vitro

Toshihiro Inagaki1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Eiichi Chihara4, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Shinichiro Sumitomo5, Nobuo Kondoh1


An Interplay Between MicroRNA and SOX4 in the Regulation of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Progression

Anjali Geethadevi1, Ansul Sharma2, Manish Kumar Sharma3, Deepak Parashar1


MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Prostate Cancer of African‑American and European‑American Men

Ernest K. Amankwah


The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Screening Anticancer Agents

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Taoli Sun3, Shengping Zhang1, Hongyan Zhang1


Panobinostat and Its Combination with 3‑Deazaneplanocin‑A Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit In vitro Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in GOS‑3 Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Javier de la Rosa*, Alejandro Urdiciain*, Juan Jesús Aznar‑Morales, Bárbara Meléndez1,
Juan A. Rey2, Miguel A. Idoate3, Javier S. Castresana


Cancer Stem‑Like Cells Have Cisplatin Resistance and miR‑93 Regulate p21 Expression in Breast Cancer

Akiko Sasaki1, Yuko Tsunoda2, Kanji Furuya3, Hideto Oyamada1, Mayumi Tsuji1, Yuko Udaka1, Masahiro Hosonuma1, Haruna Shirako1, Nana Ichimura1, Yuji Kiuchi1


The Contribution of Hexokinase 2 in Glioma

Hui Liu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang3, Yanyang Tu1


The Mechanism of BMI1 in Regulating Cancer Stemness Maintenance, Metastasis, Chemo‑ and Radiation Resistance

Xiaoshan Xu, Zhen Wang, Nan Liu, Pengxing Zhang, Hui Liu, Jing Qi, Yanyang Tu


A Multisource Adaptive Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Technique for Versatile Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lei Zhang1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,3, Brittany Moore1,2, Silu Han1,2, Jing Cai1,2,4


Senescence and Cancer

Sulin Zeng1,2, Wen H. Shen2, Li Liu1


The “Wild”‑type Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Heterogeneity on Molecule Characteristics and Clinical Features

Yanhua Mou1, Quan Wang1, Bin Li1,2


Retreatment with Cabazitaxel in a Long‑Surviving Patient with Castration‑Resistant Prostate Cancer and Visceral Metastasis

Raquel Luque Caro, Carmen Sánchez Toro, Lucia Ochoa Vallejo


Therapy‑Induced Histopathological Changes in Breast Cancers: The Changing Role of Pathology in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Shazima Sheereen1, Flora D. Lobo1, Waseemoddin Patel2, Shamama Sheereen3,
Abhishek Singh Nayyar4, Mubeen Khan5


Glioma Research in the Era of Medical Big Data

Feiyifan Wang1, Christopher J. Pirozzi2, Xuejun Li1


Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Adenomas: Case Report and Literature Review

Jian‑Hong Zhong1,2, Kang Chen1, Bhavesh K. Ahir3, Qi Huang4, Ye Wu4, Cheng‑Cheng Liao1, Rong‑Rong Jia1, Bang‑De Xiang1,2, Le‑Qun Li1,2


Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, Role in Cancer, and Novel Drug Target

Antonio Lucena‑Cacace1,2,3, Amancio Carnero1,2


Enhanced Anticancer Effect by Combination of Proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on Bladder Cancer Cells

Michael Zhang, Kelvin Zheng, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno


Molecular Insights Turning Game for Management of Ependymoma: A Review of Literature

Ajay Sasidharan, Rahul Krishnatry


IDH Gene Mutation in Glioma

Leping Liu1, Xuejun Li1,2


Challenges and Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Report and Literature Review

Gerard Cathal Millen1, Karen A. Manias1,2, Andrew C. Peet1,2, Jenny K. Adamski1


Assessing the Feasibility of Using Deformable Registration for Onboard Multimodality‑Based Target Localization in Radiation Therapy

Ge Ren1,2,3, Yawei Zhang1,2, Lei Ren1,2


Research Advancement in the Tumor Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Qing Du1, Xiaoying Ji2, Guangjing Yin3, Dengxian Wei3, Pengcheng Lin1, Yongchang Lu1,
Yugui Li3, Qiaohong Yang4, Shizhu Liu5, Jinliang Ku5, Wenbin Guan6, Yuanzhi Lu7


Novel Insights into the Role of Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Lei Zhang1, Guoyu Qiu2, Xiaohui Xu2, Yufeng Zhou3, Ruiming Chang4


Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Unusual Presenting Symptoms

Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal


The Prognostic Role of Lactate in Patients Who Achieved Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Dongni Ren1, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1,2


Inhibitory Effect of Hyaluronidase‑4 in a Rat Spinal Cord Hemisection Model

Xipeng Wang1,2, Mitsuteru Yokoyama2, Ping Liu3


Research and Development of Anticancer Agents under the Guidance of Biomarkers

Xiaohui Xu1, Guoyu Qiu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Ruling Jia1, Bo Zhao1


Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Mansoor C. Abdulla


Phosphorylation of BRCA1‑Associated Protein 1 as an Important Mechanism in the Evasion of Tumorigenesis: A Perspective

Guru Prasad Sharma1, Anjali Geethadevi2, Jyotsna Mishra3, G. Anupa4, Kapilesh Jadhav5,
K. S. Vikramdeo6, Deepak Parashar2


Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of Biliary‑Pancreatic System

Ge Zengzheng1, Huang-Sheng Ling2, Ming-Feng Li2, Xu Xiaoyan1, Yao Kai1, Xu Tongzhen3,
Ge Zengyu4, Li Zhou5


Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Study the Biological Activity of Anticancer Agent

Guoyu Qiu1, Xiaohui Xu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Huan Yang5


Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Breast Tumors

Steven Lehrer1, Peter H. Rheinstein2


OSMCC: An Online Survival Analysis Tool for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai1, Qiang Wang1, Xiaoxiao Sun1, Yifang Dang1, JiaJia Lv1,2, Junfang Xin1, Wan Zhu3, Yongqiang Li1, Xinying Ji1, Xiangqian Guo1


Protective Activity of Selenium against 5‑Fluorouracil‑Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Beauty Tokoni Amgbare


Advances on the Components of Fibrinolytic System in Malignant Tumors

Zengzheng Ge1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Zengyu Ge2, Shaopeng Zhou3, Xiulin Li1, Kai Yao1, Lan Deng4


A Patient with Persistent Foot Swelling after Ankle Sprain: B‑Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mimicking Soft‑tissue Sarcoma

Crystal R. Montgomery‑Goecker1, Andrew A. Martin2, Charles F. Timmons3, Dinesh Rakheja3, Veena Rajaram3, Hung S. Luu3


Coenzyme Q10 and Resveratrol Abrogate Paclitaxel‑Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Loritta Wasini Harris


Progress in Clinical Follow‑up Study of Dendritic Cells Combined with Cytokine‑Induced Killer for Stomach Cancer

Ling Wang1,2, Run Wan1,2, Cong Chen1,2, Ruiliang Su1,2, Yumin Li1,2


Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy as the Initial Manifestation in Carcinoma of Cervix

Priyanka Priyaarshini1, Tapan Kumar Sahoo2


ABO Typing Error Resolution and Transfusion Support in a Case of an Acute Leukemia Patient Showing Loss of Antigen Expression

Debasish Mishra1, Gopal Krushna Ray1, Smita Mahapatra2, Pankaj Parida2


Protein Disulfide Isomerase A3: A Potential Regulatory Factor of Colon Epithelial Cells

Yang Li1, Zhenfan Huang2, Haiping Jiang3


Clinicopathological Association of p16 and its Impact on Outcome of Chemoradiation in Head‑and‑Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Patients in North‑East India

Srigopal Mohanty1, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi2, Nithin Raj Daniel3, Dulasi Raman Ponna4,
Ph. Madhubala Devi5, Laishram Jaichand Singh2


Potential Inhibitor for 2019‑Novel Coronaviruses in Drug Development

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Lei Zhang3, Lingxue Zhuang4, Wutang Jing5, Lupeng Ji6, Guoyu Qiu1


Best‑Match Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Mixed Autoantibodies

Debasish Mishra1, Dibyajyoti Sahoo1, Smita Mahapatra2, Ashutosh Panigrahi3


Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Pheochromocytoma

Nadeema Rafiq1, Tauseef Nabi2, Sajad Ahmad Dar3, Shahnawaz Rasool4


Comparison of Histopathological Grading and Staging of Breast Cancer with p53‑Positive and Transforming Growth Factor‑Beta Receptor 2‑Negative Immunohistochemical Marker Expression Cases

Palash Kumar Mandal1, Anindya Adhikari2, Subir Biswas3, Amita Giri4, Arnab Gupta5,
Arindam Bhattacharya6


Chemical Compositions and Antiproliferative Effect of Essential Oil of Asafoetida on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line and Female Wistar Rats

Seyyed Majid Bagheri1,2, Davood Javidmehr3, Mohammad Ghaffari1, Ehsan Ghoderti‑Shatori4


Cyclooxygenase‑2 Contributes to Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting an Immunosuppressive Environment

Mun Kyoung Kim1, Aidin Iravani2, Matthew K. Topham2,3


Potential role of CircMET as A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Yan Liu1,2,3,4#, Chen Cui1,2,3,4#, Jidong Liu1,2,3,4, Peng Lin1,2,3,4,Kai Liang1,2,3,4, Peng Su5, Xinguo Hou1,2,3,4, Chuan Wang1,2,3,4, Jinbo Liu1,2,3,4, Bo Chen6, Hong Lai1,2,3,4, Yujing Sun1,2,3,4* and Li Chen 1,2,3,4*


Cuproptosis-related Genes in Glioblastoma as Potential Therapeutic Targets

Zhiyu Xia1,2, Haotian Tian1, Lei Shu1,2, Guozhang Tang3, Zhenyu Han4, Yangchun Hu1*, Xingliang Dai1*


Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments by Porous Inorganic Nanocarriers

Jianfeng Xu1,2, Hanwen Zhang1,2, Xiaohui Song1,2, Yangong Zheng3, Qingning Li1,2,4*


Delayed (20 Years) post-surgical Esophageal Metastasis of Breast Cancer - A Case Report

Bowen Hu1#, Lingyu Du2#, Hongya Xie1, Jun Ma1, Yong Yang1*, Jie Tan2*


Subtyping of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Its Clinical Meaning

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai, Zhendong Lu, Fengling Wang, Muhammad Usman Akbar, Saadullah Khattak, Muhammad Badar, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Longxiang Xie, Yongqiang Li, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo


Construction of Glioma Prognosis Model and Exploration of Related Regulatory Mechanism of Model Gene

Suxia Hu, Abdusemer Reyimu, Wubi Zhou, Xiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Xia Chen, Weiqiang Li, Jingjing Dai


ESRP2 as a Non-independent Potential Biomarker-Current Progress in Tumors

Yuting Chen, Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo, Chengkuan Zhao, Shuyao Zhang


Resection of Bladder Tumors at the Ureteral Orifice Using a Hook Plasma Electrode: A Case Report

Jun Li, Ziyong Wang, Qilin Wang


Structural Characterization and Bioactivity for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides

Jinghua Qi1,2,  Hangping Chen3,Huaqing Lin2,4,Hongyuan Chen1,2,5* and Wen Rui2,3,5,6*


The Role of IL-22 in the Prevention of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Liver Injury

Xingli Qi1,2, Huaqing Lin2,3, Wen Rui2,3,4,5 and Hongyuan Chen1,2,3


RBM15 and YTHDF3 as Positive Prognostic Predictors in ESCC: A Bioinformatic Analysis Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)

Yulou Luo1, Lan Chen2, Ximing Qu3, Na Yi3, Jihua Ran4, Yan Chen3,5*


Mining and Analysis of Adverse Drug Reaction Signals Induced by Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Based on the FAERS Database

Xiumin Zhang1,2#, Xinyue Lin1,3#, Siman Su1,3#, Wei He3, Yuying Huang4, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xiaoshan Chen3, Jialin Zhong3, Chong Liu3, Wang Chen3, Chengcheng Xu3, Ping Yang5, Man Zhang5, Yanli Lei5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*


Advancements in Immunotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

Min Jiang1#, Rui Zheng1#, Ling Shao1, Ning Yao2, Zhengmao Lu1*


Tumor Regression after COVID-19 Infection in Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: A Case Report

Qiaoxin Lin1, Bin Liang1, Yangyang Li2, Ling Tian3*, Dianna Gu1*


Mining and Analysis of Adverse Events of BRAF Inhibitors Based on FDA Reporting System

Silan Peng1,2#, Danling Zheng1,3#, Yanli Lei4#, Wang Chen3, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xinyue Lin1, Xiaoshan Chen3, Wei He3, Li Li3, Qiuzhen Zhang5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*


Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Fever, Anemia, Hypoproteinemia: A Rare and Strange Case Report and Literature Review

Zhenghang Li1, Yuxian Wei1*


Construction of Cuproptosis-Related LncRNA Signature as a Prognostic Model Associated with Immune Microenvironment for Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Jiyao Yu1#, Shukai Zhang2#, Qingwen Ran3, Xuemei Li4,5,6*


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