Cancer Translational Medicine

Review | Open Access

Vol.5 (2021) | Issue-1 | Page No: 19-27

DOI: https://doi-ds.org/doilink/02.2022-38785235/A4

Research progress in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of androgenic alopecia

Weiwei LI1, Chenghao Zhu2, Dandan Yang3, Yanhua YI1, Shuncai Liu1, Zhenyu Gong1*

Affiliations  

1. International Center of Aesthetic Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, GuangXi 541001,China;

2. Guangxi Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangxi 541000, China;

3. Department of traditional Chinese medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, GuangXi 541001, China.

* Corresponding Author: 

Address for correspondence: Zhenyu Gong, International Center of Aesthetic Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, GuangXi 541001, China, E-mail - gongzhenyudoc@126.com

  


Important Dates  

Date of Submission:   29-Mar-2021

Date of Acceptance:   01-Nov-2021

Date of Publication:   23-Dec-2021

ABSTRACT

Hair loss is one of the common diseases in dermatology, and the number of people with hair loss in China has increased linearly in recent years. On average, 1 in 6 people have hair loss, and people between 20 and 40 years of age account for a large proportion of this population. At present, hair loss is mostly treated with finasteride and minoxidil. Though their clinical efficacy is remarkable, they are known to cause adverse reactions such as impaired sexual function and skin allergies. In contrast, a variety of methods within traditional Chinese medicine have long been used as treatment for alopecia. Long-term adherence to a strategy with good curative effects and few adverse reactions has a unique advantage. This paper briefly describes alopecia and its etiology, the methods and mechanisms of traditional Chinese and Western medicines, and the experimental research progress in recent years to provide theoretical support for future clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies.


1. ANDROGEN ALOPECIA AND GRADING.

Alopecia is a skin disorder characterized by hair loss, predominantly of the scalp hair, with a distinctive pattern. It can be divided into cicatricial alopecia and non-cicatricial alopecia based on clinical manifestations and potential for hair regeneration. Cicatricial alopecia is common in cicatricial folliculitis, lichen planus, tertiary syphilis and other diseases, while non-cicatricial alopecia is common in alopecia areata and androgenic alopecia (AGA). [1] Alopecia areata is a kind of sudden-onset localized alopecia with normal local skin and no other symptoms and can be divided into eight types, including unifocal alopecia areata, multifocal alopecia areata and total alopecia areata. [2]

AGA is the most common type of alopecia accounting for approximately 90% of alopecia cases. Zhang Jianzhong's epidemiological statistics on AGA in China showed that the prevalence rate was 21.3% in males and 6.0% in females. Generally, the hair is thin, and thinning starts from both sides of the forehead and gradually extends to the top of the head; alternatively, the disease can originate directly at the top of the head. In addition to the classic and most commonly used Hamilton-Norwood classification of male hair loss and the Ludwig classification of female hair loss, Won-Lee et al [3] proposed the BASP classification method in 2007 to show the grade of hair loss more simply and clearly. The BASP includes four basic categories (L, M, C, and U) and two special categories (F and V) according to the status of the front hairline. Each category is divided into three levels, and the final category is composed of the basic type and the specific type (figure 1). This classification method has high repeatability, practicality and consistency and has good applicability. It is being increasingly widely used.[4]

[ArticleFigure 51]


2. AETIOLOGY AND MECHANISM.

With the rapid development of society, people are under increasing pressure from their work and study, and diet recommendations are increasingly complex, resulting in a gradual increase in the incidence of alopecia.[5],[6] The trend of people wanting to appear younger is obvious. It is beneficial to study the condition by reviewing the research published in both modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine to explore the pathogenic mechanism of alopecia. Traditional Chinese medicine mainly discusses the aetiology and pathogenesis of alopecia on the basis of syndrome differentiation and treatment. The treatment of different types of alopecia by regulating qi and blood has remarkable curative effects and few side effects, while Western medicine often posits that alopecia is the result of the comprehensive action of multiple factors. These views are also reflected by the research progress that has been made in understanding the pathogenic mechanism of alopecia in traditional Chinese and Western medicine in recent years.

Historical dynasties of traditional Chinese medicine have not yet formed a unified understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of AGA, which is mainly expounded from the aspects of viscera, meridians, qi and blood, external evil invasion, diet, emotion, and so on. However, modern traditional Chinese medicine mostly considers AGA to result from several aspects, such as lack of endowment, liver or kidney deficiency, yin and blood deficiency, spleen deficiency and dampness, blood heat and blood stasis. The main reasons are deficiencies of the liver and kidney, insufficiency and deficiencies of qi and blood, spleen deficiency and dampness, and qi and blood stasis.[7],[8],[9] Western medicine mostly explains the aetiology of AGA based on the androgen pathway, an inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress and the Wnt pathway, with mechanisms that mainly include infection and abnormal blood perfusion,[10],[11] abnormal regulation of androgen metabolism,[12],[13],[14],[15], immune imbalance,[16],[17] nerve stress,[18],[19] gene expression,[20],[21],[22] androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism, abnormal allele expression, and so on.


3. TREATMENT STRATEGY

3.1 Western medicine therapy.

3.1.1 Internal medication.

Oral drugs are generally divided into three categories: those inhibiting type II 5α-reductase, anti-androgen agents and vitamins. Finasteride, a selective type II 5α-reductase inhibitor, is the only oral drug approved by FDA for treating male hair loss. Its medicinal mechanism is to inhibit the conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to reduce the level of DHT in serum and scalp tissue, thus slowing down the process of hair loss. The daily dose of finasteride is 1 mg, and patients need to take the medicine continuously for more than 1 year. The main side effect of finasteride is decreased libido, but the incidence is low, only affecting approximately 1.8% of patients.[23]

Cimetidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, mainly acts as an anti-androgen agent and achieves its effects by competing for AR. Its dosage is generally high, and the main adverse reactions are male breast development and sexual dysfunction. This agent is mainly for female seborrheic alopecia (SA).

Spironolactone, which may inhibit T production by the adrenal gland and competitively limit DHT signal expression by acting on androgen receptor (AR), is used only in female AGA. Although the drug cannot increase the density of hair, it can reduce the secretion of oil and improve the symptoms of alopecia. The main side effects are hyperplasia of mammary glands and loss of libido.[24]

Anti-androgen drugs also include flutamide, Constal, ciprofloxacin and progesterone, and others. In addition, vitamin B2 and vitamin B6 are two viramins that can also be used to assist in the treatment of AGA.

3.1.2 Drugs for external use.

Minoxidil is a designated topical drug against AGA, approved by FDA in 1996. Three specifications are commonly used in the clinic: 2, 3 and 5, which are common to both men and women. The mechanisms by which they promote hair growth[25] may include (1) stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle epithelial cells; (2) inducing angiogenesis and increasing blood supply; and (3) opening potassium channels. Studies by Kanti[26] and Ryoji[27] and other studies have shown that minoxidil is effective in the treatment of AGA with few adverse reactions.

3.1.3 Surgical treatment.

When oral and topical drugs cannot achieve satisfactory results, surgical repair can be considered[28] and mainly includes hair follicle unit extraction and hair follicle unit transplantation. With the continuous improvement of hair transplantation technology, the two techniques are becoming increasingly improved and standardized. The survival rate of transplanted hair follicle units is higher than that of extracted hair follicle units, but there are still limitations in clinical application.

3.1.4 Psychotherapy.

Mental and psychological factors are associated with AGA. In order to treat diseases in AGA, appropriate psychotherapy and mental adjustment are also necessary to promote patient cooperation so as to achieve better results.

3.1.5 Other treatments.

There are also some other medicines against AGA, such as prostaglandin, adenylate, selenium disulfide, ketoconazole lotion, laser therapy, low-energy light therapy, cell-mediated therapy, and different treatments can be selected according to the situation.[29]

3.2 Comparison of Chinese and Western Medicine Therapies

In addition to internal treatment, external treatment can also be used and has the advantages of being simple, effective and inexpensive. Common external treatment methods in dermatology include external washing, wet compress, external rubbing and fumigation, tincture, ointment or oil application, and so on.[30] At present, traditional Chinese medicine external treatments are mainly limited to application of a soaking solution comprising a single or multiple traditional Chinese medicines; assessment of the efficacy of this approach is mostly limited to the observation of curative effects, and in-depth studies of the mechanisms are rare.

The treatment of alopecia includes not only internal and external treatments but also some characteristic treatments of traditional Chinese medicine, such as acupuncture, ear seed application, catgut embedding, plum-blossom needle therapy, and fire needle therapy. Acupuncture can improve the imbalance of yin and yang, dredge meridians and collaterals, regulate qi and blood, and improve immunity, and local acupoints can improve the functions of qi and blood in diseased sites. The acupoints are mainly the governor meridian, bladder meridian, hair loss area and Shengfa acupoint (the midpoint of the Fengchi and Fengfu connection).[31],[32]

At present, the first-line drugs for hair loss are still finasteride tablets and minoxidil, but the therapeutic outcome is not ideal, and they have some side effects as well. The adverse reactions of minoxidil include irritation and the possibility of contact dermatitis, and it takes a long time to see effects. Hair loss may occur again when the treatment is stopped.[33] Finasteride is commonly used for AGA in men who do not achieve benefits from minoxidil treatment alone. Adverse reactions to finasteride include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and male breast development.[34] Although the aetiology and pathogenesis of alopecia are not clear, and there is no unified standard for syndrome differentiation and classification in traditional Chinese medicine, it still can induce obvious therapeutic effects on alopecia, while carrying few adverse reactions and none of the common drug resistance mechanisms of Western medicine, and thus has a high clinical acceptance in patients. However, according to the concept of viscera in traditional Chinese medicine, the heart, liver, spleen and kidney should be analysed to detect any deficiency of internal organs, and internal wind, phlegm dampness, blood stasis and other pathogenic factors should be considered for comprehensive treatment.[35]


4. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE APPLICATION OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINAL MATERIALS

The key words "raw hair" and "Chinese herbal medicine” or “Chinese herbal medicine" were used to search for domestic patents in the past ten years. The search results are shown in figure 2. The results suggest that the application of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of hair loss is generally increasing year by year; in 2016, there were approximately 3 times more patent applications for traditional Chinese medicines than there were in 2009, indicating that China is focused on hair growth and hair care in recent years. However, the number has declined slightly in the past two years, indicating that the utilization of traditional Chinese medicine may have reached its peak. Regardless, the depth of the research is increasing. The following section explores additional hair loss treatment strategies and provides some experimental basis for further development and utilization of traditional Chinese medicines based on their increased application in hair care in recent years.

[ArticleFigure 48]

 

Traditional Chinese medicine believes that "hair is closely associated with blood, and hair fall is associated with blood deficiency", so strategies for nourishing blood and qi (and sometimes for nourishing yin), tonifying the kidney, clearing heat, and removing dampness is advised, towards which various medicinal materials (such as ginseng, astragalus, angelica, Shouwu, Platycladus orientalis leaves, Salvia miltiorrhiza, safflower, and mulberry) are often prescribed.[36] Sun et al.[37] showed that 70% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum can promote hair growth by promoting the proliferation of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) because it contains compounds such as gallic acid ester-8 murine O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 5-Methoxylate modulin-8-O-β-D-glucosside and (E)-2,5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2,4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2,O-β-D-glucoside. In particular, 5-Methoxylate modulin-8-O-β-D-glucosside can stimulate hair growth by promoting the proliferation of DPCs in hair follicles. Phillyrin is one of the active components of Forsythia suspensa. Studies have found that phillyrin can promote hair growth, induce hair to prematurely enter the growth stage in mice, and significantly inhibit DHT-induced apoptosis of HaCaT cells and human dermal papilla cells (HDPCs). Compared with finasteride, phillyrin significantly inhibited the expression of TGF-β2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 and upregulated the ratio of B cell lymphoma and leukaemia factor (Bcl)-2 to Bax.[40] The flowers of Carthamus tinctorius have been used as medicine and could promote menstruation and blood circulation.[47]. It was found that the extract of Carthamus tinctorius had a certain inhibitory effect on type I and type II 5α-reductase. However, Jintana and Sripanidkulchai[48] found that hydroxysafflor yellow A, the active component of safflower (for external use), could promote hair growth. In vitro experiments showed that hydroxysafflor yellow A could not only promote the proliferation of HDPCs and HaCaT cells, but also could increase the expression of VEGF and KGF while inhibiting the expression of TGF-β1. An overview of other Chinese herbs against alopecia and their mechanisms is shown in Table 1.

[ArticleTable 49]

 

Modern physicians have accumulated a large number of effective agents for the treatment of alopecia, including traditional agents, recent agents, and home-based remedies. The treatment of AGA via traditional Chinese medicine is based on syndrome differentiation according to disease assessment and human factors. Recently, some traditional Chinese medicine formulations for hair loss have been the focus of studies and achieved good results, as detailed in Table 2.

[ArticleTable 50]


5. DISCUSSION AND PROSPECT

Hair influence appearance, and it is also an important indicator of human health. In today's society, both males and females of different races are plagued by hair loss, but there is little research in the field of hair loss prevention. Because there is no suitable hair growth model for drug screening and evaluation, and there are no suitable hair loss prevention or hair regeneration products for consumers to choose from, the progress of hair growth technology is slow. With the continuous development of cytology and biological technology, research in the field of hair loss prevention is expected to increase rapidly.

Finasteride and minoxidil are approved by FDA . Although their clinical efficacy is remarkable, their adverse reactions (such as sexual dysfunction and skin allergy symptoms) cannot be ignored.[62] Traditional Chinese medicine is effective and is safe and reliable for the treatment of alopecia. At present, people are more inclined to buy natural hair loss prevention products to treat hair loss than to undergo medical treatment, and only a few people utilize hair growth technology to treat hair loss. Natural, eco-friendly and safety are the development themes of cosmetics today. Moreover, China is rich in Chinese herbal medicine resources. The theory of traditional Chinese medicine is broad and profound, and traditional Chinese medicine has the benefits of few side effects and remarkable curative effects in preventing hair loss. Given the ideological trend of returning to nature and pursuing sustainable development, the hair loss prevention agents of Chinese herbal medicine will have greater prospects in the future.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Not applicable.

COMPETING INTERESTS

The authors have declared no competing interests.

FUNDING

Not applicable.

 


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Role of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Metastatic Lung Cancer

Yufei Chen1, Mei Zhong2, Zhenhua Pan2, Jun Chen2, Hongli Chen2, Fengjie Guo2, 3,*

 

 


Cytochrome P450 2C19 Polymorphisms are Associated with a High Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Asian Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Xuehan Gao1, Zhihong Qian2, Guige Wang1, Lei Liu1, Jiaqi Zhang1, Ke Zhao1, Mengxin Zhou1, Shanqing Li1*


Limb Arterial Embolism secondary to Myocardial Primary Light Chain Amyloidosis – A Case Report

Lei Ji1, Zhili Liu1, Yuehong Zheng1*


In situ Laser Fenestration to Reconstruct Three Supra Arch Branches for Recurrent Aortic Dissection after Replacement of the Ascending Aorta and Implantation of Stent Graft in the Descending Aorta: A Case Report

Li Yuan Niu1, Hai Xin1, Hao Fu Wang1*, Yue Wei Wang1*


Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis without Definitive Primary Lesion after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report

La Zhang1, Ning Jiang2, Rui Liao1, Baoyong Zhou1*, Dewei Li3*


Analysis of Immune-Related Genes in the Tumor Microenvironment of Bladder Cancer based on TCGA database

Haiyang Jiang1#, Longguo Dai1#, Huijian Wang1#, Chongjian Zhang1, Yu Bai1, Ruiqian Li1, Jun Li1, Chen Hu1, Hongyi Wu1, Hong Yang1, Qilin Wang1, Pingting Chen2*


Diagnostic Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: A Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Lili Zhou1,2, Hai Yi1*, Dan Chen1, Qian Zhang1, Fangyi Fan1, Ling Qiu1, Nan Zhang1, Yi Su1


Updates on Molecular Markers for Gliomas

Jingyao Jie1, Weijuan Zhang2*


Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Agonists as New Targets of Lung Cancer Therapy

Shixiong Wei1*


Microcirculation Specialist Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Superficial Varicose Veins of Lower Limbs

Wang Lei1, Zheng Yuehong1*


Anticoagulation might not be necessary for asymptomatic central venous catheter-related thrombosis in adults

Wei Zhang1, Zhi Xiang1, Qin Ma2, Chuanlin Zhang3, Yu Zhao1, Qining Fu1*


The Roles of microRNA in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Jingya Gao1*, Li Liu2*


Lung Cancer Tumor Microenvironment: An Update on Recent Advances in Research

Guangda Yuan1, Bowen Hu1, Yong Yang1*


Quantified ADC Values and Attenuation Trends for Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Multiple b Values MRI

Jing Hu1#, Jingying Bu1#,Zhe Wang2#, Zhengdan Su2, Xiaoxian Wang2, Haiyao Pi3, Diliang Li2, Zhaoyang Pu4, Xin Tian1*


Differential Expression of T-box Transcription Factor TBX19 Regulates the Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Guifang He1, Yanjiao Hu2, Fuguo Dong3, Changchang Liu1, Duo Cai1, Shihai Liu1*


Advances in Pathogenesis and Non-surgical Therapy of Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma

Yichen Wu1, Jia Chen2*


Quercetin Inhibits the Proliferation and Migration of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma by Targeting the Prognostic-related Gene MMP1 via Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Zhenhua Zu1,2#, Zhongguo Zhu3#, Zhiyu Xia2, Hongrang Chen1*, Yongsheng Li1*


Huge Lung Fibroleiomyomatous Hamartoma in the Pleural Cavity – A Case report

Minghui Liu1#, Xin Li1#, Hongbing Zhang1, Fan Ren1, Ming Dong1, Chunqiu Xia1, Jun Chen1,2*


Increased Expression of IL-17A, IL-6, STAT3, TGF-β, and VEGF: Potential Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer?

Zishen Xiao1, Chengxia Bai1, Teng Zhao1, Jiayu Lin1, Lijuan Yang1, Jian Liu2, Zhenjiang Wang1, Ying Sun3,4, Yanbo Liu1*


Identification of NSD2 as a Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Wei Zhao1#, Xinyu Xiao1#, Yu Gao1,2, Shanshan Liu3, Xiuzhen Zhang1, Changhong Yang1, Qiling Peng1, Ning Jiang2*, Jianwei Wang1*


Quercetin Inhibits Glioma Proliferation by Targeting CDK1 and CCNB1 - Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Huaixu Li1#, Peng Gao1#, Haotian Tian1, Zhenyu Han2, Xingliang Dai1*, Hongwei Cheng1*


Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Yttrium-90 Microspheres in Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Applications and recent advances

Wei Wang1, Dawei Xie1, Bing Li1, Minghao Chen1*


Irreversible Electroporation in Pancreatic Cancer – Applications and recent advances

Yuanyuan Sun1, Qian Li2, Jia Hu2, Yanfang Liu2*, Xiaosong Li2*


Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T‑stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Shengen Yi, Xiongjian Cui, Li Xiong, Xiaofeng Deng, Dongni Pei, Yu Wen, Xiongying Miao


MicroRNAs are Related to Rituximab in Combination with Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone Resistance in Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

Haibo Huang1, Junjiao Gu1, Shuna Yao1, Zhihua Yao1, Yan Zhao1, Qingxin Xia2, Jie Ma2, Ling Mai3, Shujun Yang1, Yanyan Liu1


Comparison of Intra-voxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in the Evaluation of Focal Malignant Liver Masses

Jinrong Qu1, Xiang Li1, Lei Qin2, Lifeng Wang1, Junpeng Luo1, Jianwei Zhang1, Hongkai Zhang1, Jing Li1, Fei Sun3, Shouning Zhang1, Yanle Li1, Cuicui Liu1, Hailiang Li1


Extracting Breathing Signal Using Fourier Transform from Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Jing Cai1,2, Yilin Liu2, Fangfang Yin1,2


Split End Family RNA Binding Proteins: Novel Tumor Suppressors Coupling Transcriptional Regulation with RNA Processing

Hairui Su1, Yanyan Liu2, Xinyang Zhao1


Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

Pengxing  Zhang1, Xiaoling Pang2,3, Yanyang Tu1,4


Associations of Age and Chemotherapy with Late Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Toxicity in a Hypofractionated Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Schedule in Post‑mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients

Mohammad Akram1, Ghufran Nahid1, Shahid Ali Siddiqui1, Ruquiya Afrose2


Monitoring of Disease Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia‑chronic Phase Patients Treated with Indian Generic Veenat (NATCO) Imatinib Mesylate: A Tertiary Care Experience

Khushboo Dewan, Tathagat Chatterjee


Review of Cancer Immunotherapy: Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death‑ligand 1 Antibodies

Tengfei Zhang1,2, Ling Cao1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongli Yue1, Yu Ping1, Hong Li1, Lan Huang1, Yi Zhang1,3,4,5


Systematic Review of MicroRNAs and its Therapeutic Potential in Glioma

Nan Liu1, Yanyang Tu2


The Involvement of p53‑miR‑34a‑CDK4 Signaling During the Development of Cervical Cancer

Huijun Zuo, Jieqi Xiong, Hongwei Chen, Sisun Liu, Qiaoying Gong, Fei Guo


Unusual Clinical Presentation of a Rare Type of Breast Malignancy: A Case Report and a Short Review of Literature

Nadeesha J. Nawarathna1, Navam R. Kumarasinghe1, Palitha Rathnayake2,
Ranjith J. K. Seneviratne1


Sweet’s Syndrome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t (9:22)

Khushboo Dewan, Shailaja Shukla


Analysis of the Correlationship between Prostate Specific Antigen Related Variables and Risk Factor in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma

Daoyuan Wang1, Tiejun Yang2, Yongqiang Zou1, Xinqiang Yang1


Recent Progress in Genetic and Epigenetic Profile of Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Zhengxi He1, Bin Li1,2


Strategies for Management of Spinal Metastases: A Comprehensive Review

Zhantao Deng, Bin Xu, Jiewen Jin, Jianning Zhao, Haidong Xu


Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

Xia Mao, Yanqiong Zhang, Na Lin


Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yupeng Lei1, Hongxia Chen2, Pi Liu1, Xiaodong Zhou1


Expression Characteristics of miR‑10b in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Gang Li, Yunteng Zhao, Jianqi Wang, Haoran Huang, Mengwen Zhang


An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

Zonggao Shi, M. Sharon Stack


Promoter Methylated Tumor Suppressor Genes in Glioma

Yingduan Cheng1, Yanyang Tu2, Pei Liang3


Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

Chenyang Liu1*, Qian Qian2*, Shen Geng1, Wenkui Sun1, Yi Shi1


Functional Perspective and Implications of Gene Expression by Noncoding RNAs

Xiaoshuang Yan1, Huanyu Xu2, Zhonghai Yan3


Expression of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Multiple Myeloma Patients after Treatment with the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib

James Joseph Driscoll


miR‑505 Downregulates 6‑Phosphofructo‑2‑Kinase/ Fructose‑2,6‑Biphosphatase 4 to Promote Cell Death in Glioblastoma

Esther H. Chung, Hongwei Yang, Hongyan Xing, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson


Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosing Bone Tumors

Sonal Mahajan1, Akash Arvind Saoji2, Anil Agrawal1


Histone H2A and H2B Deubiquitinase in Developmental Disease and Cancer

Demeng Chen1, Caifeng Dai2, Yizhou Jiang3


Genetic Characteristics of Glioblastoma: Clinical Implications of Heterogeneity

Qian Li1, Yanyang Tu1,2


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Normal Platelet Count

Khushboo Dewan, Kiran Agarwal


Galanin is a Novel Epigenetic Silenced Functional Tumor Suppressor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Shengkun Sun1*, Axiang Xu1*, Guoqiang Yang1, Yingduan Cheng2

 


Selenium Dioxide Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells via Regulating Apoptosis-related Let-7a MicroRNA and Proteins

Sisun Liu1, Jieqi Xiong2, Ling Guo3, Min Xiu1,4, Feng He1,4, Yuanlei Lou5, Fei Guo6,7


Low Expression of Polo‑like Kinase 1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Liver Cancer

Weixia Li1, Kunpeng Liu1, Dechen Lin2, Xin Xu2, Haizhen Lu3, Xinyu Bi4, Mingrong Wang2


Extracorporeal Photopheresis for Steroid‑refractory Chronic Graft‑versus‑host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Runzhe Chen1, Baoan Chen1, Peter Dreger2, Michael Schmitt2, Anita Schmitt2


Glucans and Cancer: Historical Perspective

Petr Sima1, Luca Vannucci1, Vaclav Vetvicka2


Implications of Circadian Rhythm Regulation by microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer

Song Wu1, Andrew Fesler2, Jingfang Ju2


BCL2 Family, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, and Beyond

Haiming Dai1, X. Wei Meng2, Scott H. Kaufmann2


Quantum Dot‑based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications

Li Zhou1, Jingzhe Yan2, Lingxia Tong3, Xuezhe Han4, Xuefeng Wu5, Peng Guo6


CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

Lu Huang1, Weiguo Lv2, Xiaofeng Zhao1


Etiological Trends in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Institutional Study

Varsha Salian, Chethana Dinakar, Pushparaja Shetty, Vidya Ajila


Effect of Irinotecan Combined with Cetuximab on Liver Function in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer with Liver Metastases

Yan Liang1, Yang Li2, Xin Li3, Jianfu Zhao4


The Role of Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer: Challenges for Targeted Therapy, Immune Modulating Treatment, Early Detection, and Less Invasive Operations

Khaled Kyle Wong1, Zhirong Qian2, Yi Le3


Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Natural Products

Weidong Li1,2*, Cihui Chen3*, Zheng Liu2, Baojin Hua1


The Potential of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Focus on Breast Cancer

Mahnaz M. Kazi, Trupti I. Trivedi, Toral P. Kobawala, Nandita R. Ghosh


Imaging‑driven Digital Biomarkers

Enrico Capobianco


Target‑Matching Accuracy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer: An Investigation Based on Four‑Dimensional Digital Human Phantom

Jing Cai1,2, Kate Turner2, Xiao Liang2, W. Paul Segars2,3, Chris R. Kelsey1, David Yoo1, Lei Ren1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2


Downregulation of Death‑associated Protein Kinase 3 and Caspase‑3 Correlate to the Progression and Poor Prognosis of Gliomas

Ye Song, Tianshi Que, Hao Long, Xi’an Zhang, Luxiong Fang, Zhiyong Li, Songtao Qi


Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

Ana Paula Cleto Marolla1, Jaques Waisberg2, Gabriela Tognini Saba2, Demétrius Eduardo Germini2, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal1


Melanoma Antigen Gene Family in the Cancer Immunotherapy

Fengyu Zhu1, Yu Liang1, Demeng Chen2, Yang Li1


Combined Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Collision Tumor Variation

Kaijun Huang1, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios1, Wanhua Yang2, Rajeev L. Balmiki3


Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line (Michigan Cancer Foundation‑7)

Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini


Impact of Age on the Biochemical Failure and Androgen Suppression after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men

Nigel P. Murray1,2, Eduardo Reyes1,3, Nelson Orellana1, Cynthia Fuentealba1, Omar Jacob1


Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: 35 Years of a Single Institution’s Experience

Rana I. Mahmood1,2, Mohammed Aldehaim1,3, Fazal Hussain4, Tusneem A. Elhassan4,
Zubeir A. Khan5, Muhammad A. Memon6


Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Therapy: A Discussion

Yeling Ouyang1, Xi Chen2, Chunyun Zhang1, Vichitra Bunyamanop1, Jianfeng Guo3


The Progress in Molecular Biomarkers of Gliomas

Jing Qi1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1


Correlation between Paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 and its Therapeutic Efficacy and Severe Toxicities in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Shuyao Zhang1*, Muyin Sun2*, Yun Yuan3*, Miaojun Wang4*, Yuqi She1*, Li Zhou5, Congzhu Li5, Chen Chen1, Shengqi Zhang4


Identifying Gaps and Relative Opportunities for Discovering Membrane Proteomic Biomarkers of Triple‑negative Breast Cancer as a Translational Priority

Bhooma Venkatraman


The Molecular Mechanism and Regulatory Pathways of Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Wang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2


Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems and Three‑dimensional Cell Cultures in Cancer Treatments and Research

Wenjin Shi1, Ding Weng2,3, Wanting Niu2,3


Choline Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TRAIL in the Treatment of Colorectal Tumors and Overcomes TRAIL Resistance

Juan Carlos Lacal1, Ladislav Andera2


MicroRNA Regulating Metabolic Reprogramming in Tumor Cells: New Tumor Markers

Daniel Otero‑Albiol, Blanca Felipe‑Abrio


Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Genome‑wide Perspective

José M. Santos‑Pereira1, Sandra Muñoz‑Galván2


Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide+ Metabolism Biomarkers in Malignant Gliomas

Manuel P. Jiménez‑García, Eva M. Verdugo‑Sivianes, Antonio Lucena‑Cacace


Patient-derived Xenografts as Models for Personalized Medicine Research in Cancer

Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero


Genome‑wide Transcriptome Analysis of Prostate Cancer Tissue Identified Overexpression of Specific Members of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus‑K Family

Behnam Sayanjali1,2


Clinical Utility of Interleukin‑18 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Reecha A. Parikh, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Mahnaz M. Kazi, Nandita R. Ghosh


Current and Future Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced Soft‑tissue Sarcoma beyond Anthracyclines and Ifosfamide

Nadia Hindi1,2, Javier Martin‑Broto1,2


The Genomic Organization and Function of IRX1 in Tumorigenesis and Development

Pengxing Zhang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2


Stem Cell‑based Approach in Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer Management

Yi‑Zhou Jiang1, Demeng Chen2


Mutation Detection with a Liquid Biopsy 96 Mutation Assay in Cancer Patients and Healthy Donors

Aaron Yun Chen, Glenn D. Braunstein, Megan S. Anselmo, Jair A. Jaboni, Fernando Troy Viloria, Julie A. Neidich, Xiang Li, Anja Kammesheidt


The Application of Estrogen Receptor‑1 Mutations’ Detection through Circulating Tumor DNA in Breast Cancer

Binliang Liu, Yalan Yang, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma


Circulating MicroRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs: Liquid Biomarkers in Thoracic Cancers

Pablo Reclusa1, Anna Valentino1, Rafael Sirera1,2, Martin Frederik Dietrich3, Luis Estuardo Raez3, Christian Rolfo1


Exosomes Biology: Function and Clinical Implications in Lung Cancer

Martin Frederik Dietrich1, Christian Rolfo2, Pablo Reclusa2, Marco Giallombardo2, Anna Valentino2, Luis E. Raez1


Circulating Tumor DNA: A Potential Biomarker from Solid Tumors’ Monitor to Anticancer Therapies

Ting Chen1,2, Rongzhang He1,3, Xinglin Hu1,3,4, Weihao Luo1, Zheng Hu1,3, Jia Li1, Lili Duan1, Yali Xie1,2, Wenna Luo1,2, Tan Tan1,2, Di‑Xian Luo1,2


Novel Molecular Multilevel Targeted Antitumor Agents

Poonam Sonawane1, Young A. Choi1, Hetal Pandya2, Denise M. Herpai1, Izabela Fokt3,
Waldemar Priebe3, Waldemar Debinski1


Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Effects and Clinical Relevance

Pei Liang, Michael Gao Jr.


Stemness‑related Markers in Cancer

Wenxiu Zhao1, Yvonne Li2, Xun Zhang1


Autophagy Regulated by miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Resistance

Andrew Fesler1, Hua Liu1, Ning Wu1,2, Fei Liu3, Peixue Ling3, Jingfang Ju1,3


Gastric Metastases Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: A Brief Literature Review

Simona Gurzu1,2,3, Marius Alexandru Beleaua1, Laura Banias2, Ioan Jung1


Possibility of Specific Expression of the Protein Toxins at the Tumor Site with Tumor‑specialized Promoter

Liyuan Zhou1,2, Yujun Li1,2, Changchen Hu3, Binquan Wang1,2


SKI‑178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models

Jeremy A. Hengst1,2, Taryn E. Dick1,2, Arati Sharma1, Kenichiro Doi3, Shailaja Hegde4, Su‑Fern Tan5, Laura M. Geffert1,2, Todd E. Fox5, Arun K. Sharma1, Dhimant Desai1, Shantu Amin1, Mark Kester5, Thomas P. Loughran5, Robert F. Paulson4, David F. Claxton6, Hong‑Gang Wang3, Jong K. Yun1,2


A T‑cell Engager‑armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to Target the Tumor Stroma

Feng Yu1, Bangxing Hong1, Xiao‑Tong Song1,2,3


Real‑world Experience with Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration‑resistant Prostate Cancer

Yasar Ahmed1, Nemer Osman1, Rizwan Sheikh2, Sarah Picardo1, Geoffrey Watson1


Combination of Interleukin‑11Rα Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‑cells and Programmed Death‑1 Blockade as an Approach to Targeting Osteosarcoma Cells In vitro

Hatel Rana Moonat, Gangxiong Huang, Pooja Dhupkar, Keri Schadler, Nancy Gordon,
Eugenie Kleinerman


Efficacy and Safety of Paclitaxel‑based Therapy and Nonpaclitaxel‑based Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

Tongwei Wu, Xiao Yang, Min An, Wenqin Luo, Danxian Cai, Xiaolong Qi


Motion Estimation of the Liver Based on Deformable Image Registration: A Comparison Between Four‑Dimensional‑Computed Tomography and Four‑Dimensional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xiao Liang1, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2, Yilin Liu1, Brian Czito2, Manisha Palta2, Mustafa Bashir3, Jing Cai1,2


A Feasibility Study of Applying Thermal Imaging to Assist Quality Assurance of High‑Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Xiaofeng Zhu1, Yu Lei1, Dandan Zheng1, Sicong Li1, Vivek Verma1, Mutian Zhang1, Qinghui Zhang1, Xiaoli Tang2, Jun Lian2, Sha X. Chang2, Haijun Song3, Sumin Zhou1, Charles A. Enke1


Role of Exosome microRNA in Breast Cancer

Wang Qu, Ma Fei, Binghe Xu


Recent Progress in Technological Improvement and Biomedical Applications of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas System

Yanlan Li1,2*, Zheng Hu1*, Yufang Yin3, Rongzhang He1, Jian Hu1, Weihao Luo1, Jia Li1, Gebo Wen2, Li Xiao1, Kai Li1, Duanfang Liao4, Di-Xian Luo1,5


The Significance of Nuclear Factor‑Kappa B Signaling Pathway in Glioma: A Review

Xiaoshan Xu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1


Markerless Four‑Dimensional‑Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection‑Phase Sorting Using Prior Knowledge and Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

Lei Zhang1,2, Yawei Zhang2, You Zhang1,2,3, Wendy B. Harris1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,4, Jing Cai1,4,5, Lei Ren1,2


The Producing Capabilities of Interferon‑g and Interleukin‑10 of Spleen Cells in Primary and Metastasized Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells-implanted Mice

Yasuka Azuma1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Toshihiro Inagaki4, Eiichi Chihara2, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Nobuo Kondoh1


“Eating” Cancer Cells by Blocking CD47 Signaling: Cancer Therapy by Targeting the Innate Immune Checkpoint

Yi‑Rong Xiang, Li Liu


Glycosylation is Involved in Malignant Properties of Cancer Cells

Kazunori Hamamura1, Koichi Furukawa2


Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Era of Precision Medicine

Qing‑Hao Zhu1*, Qing‑Chao Shang1*, Zhi‑Hao Hu1*, Yuan Liu2, Bo Li1, Bo Wang1, An‑Hui Wang1


I‑Kappa‑B Kinase‑epsilon Activates Nuclear Factor‑kappa B and STAT5B and Supports Glioblastoma Growth but Amlexanox Shows Little Therapeutic Potential in These Tumors

Nadège Dubois1, Sharon Berendsen2, Aurélie Henry1,2, Minh Nguyen1, Vincent Bours1,
Pierre Alain Robe1,2


Suppressive Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Interferon‑g‑Producing Capability of Spleen Cells was Specifically Enhanced through Humoral Mediator(s) from Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sq‑1979 Cells In Vitro

Toshihiro Inagaki1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Eiichi Chihara4, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Shinichiro Sumitomo5, Nobuo Kondoh1


An Interplay Between MicroRNA and SOX4 in the Regulation of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Progression

Anjali Geethadevi1, Ansul Sharma2, Manish Kumar Sharma3, Deepak Parashar1


MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Prostate Cancer of African‑American and European‑American Men

Ernest K. Amankwah


The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Screening Anticancer Agents

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Taoli Sun3, Shengping Zhang1, Hongyan Zhang1


Panobinostat and Its Combination with 3‑Deazaneplanocin‑A Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit In vitro Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in GOS‑3 Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Javier de la Rosa*, Alejandro Urdiciain*, Juan Jesús Aznar‑Morales, Bárbara Meléndez1,
Juan A. Rey2, Miguel A. Idoate3, Javier S. Castresana


Cancer Stem‑Like Cells Have Cisplatin Resistance and miR‑93 Regulate p21 Expression in Breast Cancer

Akiko Sasaki1, Yuko Tsunoda2, Kanji Furuya3, Hideto Oyamada1, Mayumi Tsuji1, Yuko Udaka1, Masahiro Hosonuma1, Haruna Shirako1, Nana Ichimura1, Yuji Kiuchi1


The Contribution of Hexokinase 2 in Glioma

Hui Liu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang3, Yanyang Tu1


The Mechanism of BMI1 in Regulating Cancer Stemness Maintenance, Metastasis, Chemo‑ and Radiation Resistance

Xiaoshan Xu, Zhen Wang, Nan Liu, Pengxing Zhang, Hui Liu, Jing Qi, Yanyang Tu


A Multisource Adaptive Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Technique for Versatile Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lei Zhang1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,3, Brittany Moore1,2, Silu Han1,2, Jing Cai1,2,4


Senescence and Cancer

Sulin Zeng1,2, Wen H. Shen2, Li Liu1


The “Wild”‑type Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Heterogeneity on Molecule Characteristics and Clinical Features

Yanhua Mou1, Quan Wang1, Bin Li1,2


Retreatment with Cabazitaxel in a Long‑Surviving Patient with Castration‑Resistant Prostate Cancer and Visceral Metastasis

Raquel Luque Caro, Carmen Sánchez Toro, Lucia Ochoa Vallejo


Therapy‑Induced Histopathological Changes in Breast Cancers: The Changing Role of Pathology in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Shazima Sheereen1, Flora D. Lobo1, Waseemoddin Patel2, Shamama Sheereen3,
Abhishek Singh Nayyar4, Mubeen Khan5


Glioma Research in the Era of Medical Big Data

Feiyifan Wang1, Christopher J. Pirozzi2, Xuejun Li1


Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Adenomas: Case Report and Literature Review

Jian‑Hong Zhong1,2, Kang Chen1, Bhavesh K. Ahir3, Qi Huang4, Ye Wu4, Cheng‑Cheng Liao1, Rong‑Rong Jia1, Bang‑De Xiang1,2, Le‑Qun Li1,2


Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, Role in Cancer, and Novel Drug Target

Antonio Lucena‑Cacace1,2,3, Amancio Carnero1,2


Enhanced Anticancer Effect by Combination of Proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on Bladder Cancer Cells

Michael Zhang, Kelvin Zheng, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno


Molecular Insights Turning Game for Management of Ependymoma: A Review of Literature

Ajay Sasidharan, Rahul Krishnatry


IDH Gene Mutation in Glioma

Leping Liu1, Xuejun Li1,2


Challenges and Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Report and Literature Review

Gerard Cathal Millen1, Karen A. Manias1,2, Andrew C. Peet1,2, Jenny K. Adamski1


Assessing the Feasibility of Using Deformable Registration for Onboard Multimodality‑Based Target Localization in Radiation Therapy

Ge Ren1,2,3, Yawei Zhang1,2, Lei Ren1,2


Research Advancement in the Tumor Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Qing Du1, Xiaoying Ji2, Guangjing Yin3, Dengxian Wei3, Pengcheng Lin1, Yongchang Lu1,
Yugui Li3, Qiaohong Yang4, Shizhu Liu5, Jinliang Ku5, Wenbin Guan6, Yuanzhi Lu7


Novel Insights into the Role of Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Lei Zhang1, Guoyu Qiu2, Xiaohui Xu2, Yufeng Zhou3, Ruiming Chang4


Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Unusual Presenting Symptoms

Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal


The Prognostic Role of Lactate in Patients Who Achieved Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Dongni Ren1, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1,2


Inhibitory Effect of Hyaluronidase‑4 in a Rat Spinal Cord Hemisection Model

Xipeng Wang1,2, Mitsuteru Yokoyama2, Ping Liu3


Research and Development of Anticancer Agents under the Guidance of Biomarkers

Xiaohui Xu1, Guoyu Qiu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Ruling Jia1, Bo Zhao1


Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Mansoor C. Abdulla


Phosphorylation of BRCA1‑Associated Protein 1 as an Important Mechanism in the Evasion of Tumorigenesis: A Perspective

Guru Prasad Sharma1, Anjali Geethadevi2, Jyotsna Mishra3, G. Anupa4, Kapilesh Jadhav5,
K. S. Vikramdeo6, Deepak Parashar2


Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of Biliary‑Pancreatic System

Ge Zengzheng1, Huang-Sheng Ling2, Ming-Feng Li2, Xu Xiaoyan1, Yao Kai1, Xu Tongzhen3,
Ge Zengyu4, Li Zhou5


Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Study the Biological Activity of Anticancer Agent

Guoyu Qiu1, Xiaohui Xu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Huan Yang5


Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Breast Tumors

Steven Lehrer1, Peter H. Rheinstein2


OSMCC: An Online Survival Analysis Tool for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai1, Qiang Wang1, Xiaoxiao Sun1, Yifang Dang1, JiaJia Lv1,2, Junfang Xin1, Wan Zhu3, Yongqiang Li1, Xinying Ji1, Xiangqian Guo1


Protective Activity of Selenium against 5‑Fluorouracil‑Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Beauty Tokoni Amgbare


Advances on the Components of Fibrinolytic System in Malignant Tumors

Zengzheng Ge1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Zengyu Ge2, Shaopeng Zhou3, Xiulin Li1, Kai Yao1, Lan Deng4


A Patient with Persistent Foot Swelling after Ankle Sprain: B‑Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mimicking Soft‑tissue Sarcoma

Crystal R. Montgomery‑Goecker1, Andrew A. Martin2, Charles F. Timmons3, Dinesh Rakheja3, Veena Rajaram3, Hung S. Luu3


Coenzyme Q10 and Resveratrol Abrogate Paclitaxel‑Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Loritta Wasini Harris


Progress in Clinical Follow‑up Study of Dendritic Cells Combined with Cytokine‑Induced Killer for Stomach Cancer

Ling Wang1,2, Run Wan1,2, Cong Chen1,2, Ruiliang Su1,2, Yumin Li1,2


Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy as the Initial Manifestation in Carcinoma of Cervix

Priyanka Priyaarshini1, Tapan Kumar Sahoo2


ABO Typing Error Resolution and Transfusion Support in a Case of an Acute Leukemia Patient Showing Loss of Antigen Expression

Debasish Mishra1, Gopal Krushna Ray1, Smita Mahapatra2, Pankaj Parida2


Protein Disulfide Isomerase A3: A Potential Regulatory Factor of Colon Epithelial Cells

Yang Li1, Zhenfan Huang2, Haiping Jiang3


Clinicopathological Association of p16 and its Impact on Outcome of Chemoradiation in Head‑and‑Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Patients in North‑East India

Srigopal Mohanty1, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi2, Nithin Raj Daniel3, Dulasi Raman Ponna4,
Ph. Madhubala Devi5, Laishram Jaichand Singh2


Potential Inhibitor for 2019‑Novel Coronaviruses in Drug Development

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Lei Zhang3, Lingxue Zhuang4, Wutang Jing5, Lupeng Ji6, Guoyu Qiu1


Best‑Match Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Mixed Autoantibodies

Debasish Mishra1, Dibyajyoti Sahoo1, Smita Mahapatra2, Ashutosh Panigrahi3


Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Pheochromocytoma

Nadeema Rafiq1, Tauseef Nabi2, Sajad Ahmad Dar3, Shahnawaz Rasool4


Comparison of Histopathological Grading and Staging of Breast Cancer with p53‑Positive and Transforming Growth Factor‑Beta Receptor 2‑Negative Immunohistochemical Marker Expression Cases

Palash Kumar Mandal1, Anindya Adhikari2, Subir Biswas3, Amita Giri4, Arnab Gupta5,
Arindam Bhattacharya6


Chemical Compositions and Antiproliferative Effect of Essential Oil of Asafoetida on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line and Female Wistar Rats

Seyyed Majid Bagheri1,2, Davood Javidmehr3, Mohammad Ghaffari1, Ehsan Ghoderti‑Shatori4


Cyclooxygenase‑2 Contributes to Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting an Immunosuppressive Environment

Mun Kyoung Kim1, Aidin Iravani2, Matthew K. Topham2,3


Potential role of CircMET as A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Yan Liu1,2,3,4#, Chen Cui1,2,3,4#, Jidong Liu1,2,3,4, Peng Lin1,2,3,4,Kai Liang1,2,3,4, Peng Su5, Xinguo Hou1,2,3,4, Chuan Wang1,2,3,4, Jinbo Liu1,2,3,4, Bo Chen6, Hong Lai1,2,3,4, Yujing Sun1,2,3,4* and Li Chen 1,2,3,4*


Cuproptosis-related Genes in Glioblastoma as Potential Therapeutic Targets

Zhiyu Xia1,2, Haotian Tian1, Lei Shu1,2, Guozhang Tang3, Zhenyu Han4, Yangchun Hu1*, Xingliang Dai1*


Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments by Porous Inorganic Nanocarriers

Jianfeng Xu1,2, Hanwen Zhang1,2, Xiaohui Song1,2, Yangong Zheng3, Qingning Li1,2,4*


Delayed (20 Years) post-surgical Esophageal Metastasis of Breast Cancer - A Case Report

Bowen Hu1#, Lingyu Du2#, Hongya Xie1, Jun Ma1, Yong Yang1*, Jie Tan2*


Subtyping of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Its Clinical Meaning

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai, Zhendong Lu, Fengling Wang, Muhammad Usman Akbar, Saadullah Khattak, Muhammad Badar, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Longxiang Xie, Yongqiang Li, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo


Construction of Glioma Prognosis Model and Exploration of Related Regulatory Mechanism of Model Gene

Suxia Hu, Abdusemer Reyimu, Wubi Zhou, Xiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Xia Chen, Weiqiang Li, Jingjing Dai


ESRP2 as a Non-independent Potential Biomarker-Current Progress in Tumors

Yuting Chen, Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo, Chengkuan Zhao, Shuyao Zhang


Resection of Bladder Tumors at the Ureteral Orifice Using a Hook Plasma Electrode: A Case Report

Jun Li, Ziyong Wang, Qilin Wang


Structural Characterization and Bioactivity for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides

Jinghua Qi1,2,  Hangping Chen3,Huaqing Lin2,4,Hongyuan Chen1,2,5* and Wen Rui2,3,5,6*


The Role of IL-22 in the Prevention of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Liver Injury

Xingli Qi1,2, Huaqing Lin2,3, Wen Rui2,3,4,5 and Hongyuan Chen1,2,3


RBM15 and YTHDF3 as Positive Prognostic Predictors in ESCC: A Bioinformatic Analysis Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)

Yulou Luo1, Lan Chen2, Ximing Qu3, Na Yi3, Jihua Ran4, Yan Chen3,5*


Mining and Analysis of Adverse Drug Reaction Signals Induced by Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Based on the FAERS Database

Xiumin Zhang1,2#, Xinyue Lin1,3#, Siman Su1,3#, Wei He3, Yuying Huang4, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xiaoshan Chen3, Jialin Zhong3, Chong Liu3, Wang Chen3, Chengcheng Xu3, Ping Yang5, Man Zhang5, Yanli Lei5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*


Advancements in Immunotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

Min Jiang1#, Rui Zheng1#, Ling Shao1, Ning Yao2, Zhengmao Lu1*


Tumor Regression after COVID-19 Infection in Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: A Case Report

Qiaoxin Lin1, Bin Liang1, Yangyang Li2, Ling Tian3*, Dianna Gu1*


Mining and Analysis of Adverse Events of BRAF Inhibitors Based on FDA Reporting System

Silan Peng1,2#, Danling Zheng1,3#, Yanli Lei4#, Wang Chen3, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xinyue Lin1, Xiaoshan Chen3, Wei He3, Li Li3, Qiuzhen Zhang5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*


Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Fever, Anemia, Hypoproteinemia: A Rare and Strange Case Report and Literature Review

Zhenghang Li1, Yuxian Wei1*


Construction of Cuproptosis-Related LncRNA Signature as a Prognostic Model Associated with Immune Microenvironment for Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Jiyao Yu1#, Shukai Zhang2#, Qingwen Ran3, Xuemei Li4,5,6*


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