Cancer Translational Medicine

Review | Open Access

Vol.8 (2022) | Issue-2 | Page No: 37-44


The Roles of microRNA in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Jingya Gao1*, Li Liu2*


1. Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Tianjin Children’s Hospital/Tianjin University Children's Hospital,Tianjin, China;

2. Department of Pathogen Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

* Corresponding Author

Address for correspondence: Prof. Jingya Gao, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Tianjin Children’s Hospital/Tianjin University Children’s Hospital, No.225 Machang Road, Hexi District, Tianjin 300074, China. E-mail ID:

Prof. Li Liu, Department of Pathogen Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, No.5 Dongdan North Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100005, China. E-mail ID:    

Important Dates  

Date of Submission:   01-Feb-2022

Date of Acceptance:   25-Mar-2022

Date of Publication:   28-Jun-2022


Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system with an increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. It has been shown that microRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in the development and progression of thyroid cancer. miRNAs are a class of stable endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNAs of approximately 22nt in length. They recognize their targets by binding specifically to the 3’ untranslated region of mRNAs or to complementary sequences of coding regions, and negatively regulate the expression of target genes through RNA-induced silencing complexes to degrade target mRNAs or inhibit translation; thereby participating in the growth, development and differentiation, of diseases in organisms. This review especially summarizes the roles of miRNAs in the development, diagnosis, and prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer and provides a reference for individualized treatment of this disease.

Keywords: Thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, miRNA, diagnosis, prognosis


Thyroid cancer (TC) is one of the common tumors of the head and neck, and endocrine system. It is now the fifth most common malignant tumor worldwide, accounting for about 3% of all tumors. It is most commonly observed in women over 50 years of age.[1] The incidence rates of TC in children and adolescents have also been increasing dramatically in recent years, although its mortality rate has relatively decreased or remained constant.[2] There are many different types of thyroid cancer, including differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). PTC is the most common type of carcinoma.[3],[4] MicroRNAs (miRNA) could play both positive or negative roles by either promoting or inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the fields of miRNA and PTC and provide a novel option for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


The relatively stable presence of miRNA in tumor tissue and blood circulation, the non-invasive nature of miRNA detection, and the high clinical feasibility make it a useful target for the diagnosis of PTC in the clinical setting.[5] Currently, fine-needle aspiration cytology is an effective detection method for preoperative diagnosis of PTC, but this test is invasive and most often gives false-negative results, so it is necessary to find a diagnostic method with higher safety, specificity, and sensitivity. Panebianco et al. found that the BRAF V600E test combined with the four genes model (KIT, TC1, miR-222, miR-146b) could improve the detection rate, sensitivity, and specificity of TC.[6] The BRAFV600E gene mutation is one of the common mutations in PTC that results in structural changes in the BRAF protein, leading to persistent activations of both BRAF kinase and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.[7] The inhibitory role of miR-9 in PTC promotes apoptosis by directly targeting BRAF.[8] Agretti et al. found that miR-146b, miR-155, and miR-221 were differentially expressed in PTC tissues and could effectively function in benign thyroid nodules versus malignant tumors with few false-negative results, however, their poor sensitivity and low specificity limited the clinical application of these biomarkers.[9] Liang et al. showed that miRNA-221/222 were up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues. For miRNA-221/222, its pooled sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the curve) values were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.85), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90), and 0.88 (0.85-0.91), respectively, which can be developed as a valid biomarker for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.[10]

  It was found that the combination of multiple miRNA molecules was more accurate than a single miRNA in the diagnosis of TC.[11] Park et al. found that miRNAs (miR-136, miR-21, and miR-127) were differentially expressed in patients with PTC and non-malignant tumors.[12] The abnormal expression of these miRNAs was strongly correlated with LNM and tumor recurrence in PTC patients. Related research is in progress aiming to improve the efficacy of medication, promote the accuracy of early diagnosis, and avoid wasting medical resources. MiR-199b-5p was significantly down-regulated in the tissues of PTC patients, and negatively correlated with sHLA-G expression.[13] This study indicated that miR-199b-5p and HLA-g had significant diagnostic value in PTC patients. Yang et al. investigated the differential expression of lncRNA and miRNA in PTC patients and showed that 11 lncRNAs and 6 miRNAs were considered to be the best diagnostic biomarkers for PTC.[14] A group of miRNAs (miR-1296-5p, miR-1301-3p, miR-532-5p, miR-551b-3p, and miR-455-3p) was aberrantly expressed in papillary thyroid cancer, and correlated with clinicopathological features. ROC curve analysis indicated that these five miRNAs had potential diagnostic value.[15] Further studies have shown that plasma miRNA expression also differed in patients with PTC and nodular goiter. Circulating miR-222 was significantly elevated in PTC patients.[16] Dai et al. found that the expressions of miR-376a-3p, miR-4306, miR-4433a-5p, and miR-485-3p in exosomes were significantly increased in patients with PTC.[17] Among them, the AUC was greater for miR-485-3p and miR-4433a-5p. The results suggest that plasma exosomes containing miR-485-3p and miR-4433a-5p might be potentially used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of PTC. Studies have shown that the let-7 family played a role in the progression of cancers such as lung cancer, prostate cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, and hepatocellular carcinomas. Perdas et al. investigated the role of the circulating Let-7 family in PTC and showed that the expression of the circulating Let-7 family (let-7a, let-7c, let-7d, and let-7f) was significantly elevated in patients with PTC. Hence, it could be developed as a diagnostic method for PTC.[18] Moreover, Pan et al. demonstrated that miR-5189-3p had the best diagnostic performance of PTC and nodular goiter with an AUC of 0.951.[19] The results of a combination miRNA study showed that circulating exosomal miR-16-2-3p, miR-223-5p, miR-101-3p and miR-34c-5p were effective in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules.[20] Circulating miRNAs (miR-25-3p, miR-296-5p, and miR-92a-3p) were effective in distinguishing patients with PTC from those with benign goiter.[21] miRNA not only improves the diagnosis of PTC but also serves as the parameter that benefits the classification of pediatric thyroid lesions. The 10-miRNA classifier (miR-29b-1-5p, miR-31-5p, miR-138-1-3p, miR-139-5p, miR-146b-5p, miR-155, miR-204-5p, miR-222-3p, miR-375, miR-551b-3p) was 100% specific for 39 (59%) pediatric malignant lesions.[22] Overall, the above findings suggest that miRNAs could be promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of TC. As previously discussed, several miRNAs have been used as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCT patients, as shown in Table 1.


Table 1.
Table 1. miRNA and the diagnosis of PTC


Though TC has a five-year survival rate of 90%, 20%-30% of patients still face disease recurrence or tumor-related death.[24],[25] Therefore, uncovering novel biomarkers to predict the prognosis is important for patients with PTC in order to have early intervention and close monitoring. Studies have shown that miRNA not only improves the early diagnosis of PTC, but also predicts the prognosis of patients.[26],[27],[28],[29] Dong et al. showed that miR-421 was highly expressed in PTC tissues and cell lines, and was closely associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor infiltration, and prognosis in PTC patients.[30] Further study showed that miR-421 could promote PTC cell invasion and metastasis.[31] No significant difference in miRNA-27a expression was observed between PTC and normal tissues. But a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and tumor recurrence was found in patients with high miRNA-27a expression.[28] Pamedytyte et al. found that miRNA expression profiles differ between patients with and without tumor recurrence, and certain miRNAs (-146b, -222, -21, -221, -181b) were highly expressed in the tissues of patients with a recurrent TC and correlated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis.[32] A meta-analysis also showed that differences in miRNA expression correlated with tumor lymph node metastasis.[33] It was found that miRNA-363-3p is one of the oncogenes and plays an important role in tumor development. Pan et al. found that, in PTC patients, miRNA-363-3p expression was low, and the difference in the expression level of miRNA-363-3p correlated with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage, and prognosis of tumor patients.[34] It was also found that miRNA-363-3p inhibited tumor cell proliferation and metastasis by targeting PIK3CA and NOB1, thus exerting a tumor suppressor function, while the oncogenic miR-127 could be deregulated in a variety of tumor tissues or differentially expressed in PTC tissues.[35],[36] MiR-127 overexpression significantly enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in PTC by targeting REPIN1, acting as an oncogene. Retrospective analysis showed that miR-127 expression was upregulated in PTC tissues and cells. Studies also found that it was closely associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage, and prognosis.[37] MiR-140 also affects the proliferation and migration of thyroid cancer cells.[38] MiR-140 expression was closely associated with the prognosis of PTC patients. Numerous studies have shown that miRNA affects a variety of biological processes, including carcinogenesis. MiR-146b, miR-187, miR-221, and miR-222 are significantly upregulated in patients with PTC, and miR-221 is strongly associated with tumor recurrence. A further study showed that abnormal expression of miR-146b and miR-187 was associated with BRAF V600E mutations in PTC patients.[39] Some relevant studies have shown that miRNA-519d-3p, miR-154-3p, miR-487-3p, miR-139-5p, and miR-9 were all associated with prognosis in PTC patients.[40],[41],[42],[43] Not only miRNAs detected in tumor tissues could predict patient prognosis, but also miRNA expression in somatic exosomes could prognosticate the prognosis of PTC patients. Serum exosomal miR-29a expression is low in PTC patients and increases progressively at 30 and 90 days postoperatively. Altered serum exosome miR-29a expression was clearly associated with postoperative recurrence.[44] Plasma exosome miR-146b-5p and miR-222-3p expression was strongly associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with PTC.[45] Currently, there is still relatively little evidence for the prediction of tumor prognosis by miRNA, and the accuracy of predictive risk models for miRNA/mRNA-associated somatic mutations may be higher. Nieto HR et al. investigated this and showed that miR-486 and miR-1179 were strongly associated with the migration of TPC-1 and SW1736 cells. The genes FN1, ITGα3, and MET, as well as miR-486 and -1179, predict the prognosis of PTC patients.[46] Moreover, miRNAs can predict the prognosis of patients with PTC, but the accuracy of prediction using a single miRNA might be much less convincing. Functional enrichment analysis on a miRNA gene regulatory network established with 8 differentially expressed miRNAs (MiR-1179, miR-133b, miR-3194, miR-3912, miR-548j, miR-6720, miR-6734, and miR-6843) suggested that this scoring system may influence the prognosis of PTC through the hedgehog signaling pathway and calcium signaling pathway.[47] A meta-analysis showed that miR-146b, miR-221, and miR-222 are associated with PTC recurrence and may be potential prognostic biomarkers for PTC.[48] CircRNA-UMAD1 and Gal3 were associated with LNM in PTC patients. Since miR-873 regulates Gal3, it may also be associated with LNM in PTC patients.[49]

miRNA can not only be used in the early diagnosis and prognosis of PTC patients but also may serve as a drug for the treatment of PTC. For example, miRNA can be targeted to certain tissues or cells by using liposomes or viruses as a carrier to introduce them into the medium, thus achieving therapeutic effects. Gajda et al. found that miR-7-5p and chemotherapeutic drugs acting together on tumor cells can increase drug sensitivity and improve prognosis.[50] Currently, the treatment options for PTC are surgical resection, followed by endocrine therapy, and radionuclide therapy. High recurrence-risk patients should be combined with radiotherapy and targeted therapy. Among them, 131I therapy is one of the main postoperative treatment measures for PTC, which can take out residual thyroid tissue, and remove possible metastases or residual lesions. This approach cannot be confirmed by imaging after surgery while treating local or distant metastases that are known to exist after surgery and cannot be removed surgically. But some patients are less sensitive to 131I radiation therapy and have a poor prognosis after treatment. Gierlikowski et al. showed that NIS(Na(+)/I(-) symporter) encoded by the SLC5A5 gene, an enhanced iodine transporter protein, increased the sensitivity to 131I radiotherapy and its expression was decreased in PTC. Further studies revealed that miR-181a-5p inhibits NIS protein expression by binding to the 3'UTR of the SLC5A5 gene. And this study revealed that silencing miR-181a-5p increased the sensitivity to radiotherapy.[51] In addition, miR-339-5p and miR-875-5p can also bind to human NIS to inhibit its mRNA transcription and decrease NIS expression, reduce the effect of radioiodine therapy, and make it difficult for patients to benefit from radioiodine therapy.[52],[53] MiRNA expression modulates the sensitivity to cisplatin in PTC patients.[54] As previously discussed, several miRNAs identified as potential biomarkers of prognosis in PTC patients are evidenced in Table 2.


Table 2.
Table 2. miRNA and the prognosis and treatment of PTC


In recent years, the incidence of PTC has been increasing. The current screening and therapeutic tools need to be advanced, and new techniques need to be developed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of early diagnosis. Early and effective diagnosis and treatment can prolong the survival period of patients, improve prognosis and reduce the cost of treatment accordingly. The expressions of certain miRNAs were significantly upregulated or downregulated in PTC tissues, implying that miRNAs might play regulatory roles during the development of PTC. MiRNAs functions in various biological behaviors of PTC, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasive metastasis. The results of the study showed a strong correlation between miRNA expression and the prognosis of PTC patients. However, the roles of miRNAs in the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and follow-up monitoring of PTC were less summarized. This review indicates that although evidence shows that miRNAs play critical and diverse roles in various stages of PTC, no translational research has ever been attempted, indicating that miRNA research in the diagnosis and treatment of PTC is still in its infancy. Further research is highly demanded in order to promote the clinical application of miRNA in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PTC.

There are many constraints to quantitative miRNA testing, including 1) specimen collection and 2) miRNA quantification and data analysis. The process requires a large number of skilled professionals and expensive equipment, which makes the test expensive, increases the cost of care, and limits the availability of large-scale miRNA testing. Most of the current studies are single-center, a small number of studies are cytological studies, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the findings. It is expected that the operational process can be simplified, the accuracy of data results can be improved, the experimental period can be shortened and the cost of testing can be reduced, larger cohort studies should be conducted and new technologies should be put into clinical use at an early stage.






There are no conflicts of interest



Not applicable.




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Role of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Metastatic Lung Cancer

Yufei Chen1, Mei Zhong2, Zhenhua Pan2, Jun Chen2, Hongli Chen2, Fengjie Guo2, 3,*



Cytochrome P450 2C19 Polymorphisms are Associated with a High Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Asian Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Xuehan Gao1, Zhihong Qian2, Guige Wang1, Lei Liu1, Jiaqi Zhang1, Ke Zhao1, Mengxin Zhou1, Shanqing Li1*

Limb Arterial Embolism secondary to Myocardial Primary Light Chain Amyloidosis – A Case Report

Lei Ji1, Zhili Liu1, Yuehong Zheng1*

In situ Laser Fenestration to Reconstruct Three Supra Arch Branches for Recurrent Aortic Dissection after Replacement of the Ascending Aorta and Implantation of Stent Graft in the Descending Aorta: A Case Report

Li Yuan Niu1, Hai Xin1, Hao Fu Wang1*, Yue Wei Wang1*

Research progress in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of androgenic alopecia

Weiwei LI1, Chenghao Zhu2, Dandan Yang3, Yanhua YI1, Shuncai Liu1, Zhenyu Gong1*

Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis without Definitive Primary Lesion after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report

La Zhang1, Ning Jiang2, Rui Liao1, Baoyong Zhou1*, Dewei Li3*

Analysis of Immune-Related Genes in the Tumor Microenvironment of Bladder Cancer based on TCGA database

Haiyang Jiang1#, Longguo Dai1#, Huijian Wang1#, Chongjian Zhang1, Yu Bai1, Ruiqian Li1, Jun Li1, Chen Hu1, Hongyi Wu1, Hong Yang1, Qilin Wang1, Pingting Chen2*

Diagnostic Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: A Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Lili Zhou1,2, Hai Yi1*, Dan Chen1, Qian Zhang1, Fangyi Fan1, Ling Qiu1, Nan Zhang1, Yi Su1

Updates on Molecular Markers for Gliomas

Jingyao Jie1, Weijuan Zhang2*

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Agonists as New Targets of Lung Cancer Therapy

Shixiong Wei1*

Microcirculation Specialist Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Superficial Varicose Veins of Lower Limbs

Wang Lei1, Zheng Yuehong1*

Anticoagulation might not be necessary for asymptomatic central venous catheter-related thrombosis in adults

Wei Zhang1, Zhi Xiang1, Qin Ma2, Chuanlin Zhang3, Yu Zhao1, Qining Fu1*

Lung Cancer Tumor Microenvironment: An Update on Recent Advances in Research

Guangda Yuan1, Bowen Hu1, Yong Yang1*

Quantified ADC Values and Attenuation Trends for Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Multiple b Values MRI

Jing Hu1#, Jingying Bu1#,Zhe Wang2#, Zhengdan Su2, Xiaoxian Wang2, Haiyao Pi3, Diliang Li2, Zhaoyang Pu4, Xin Tian1*

Differential Expression of T-box Transcription Factor TBX19 Regulates the Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Guifang He1, Yanjiao Hu2, Fuguo Dong3, Changchang Liu1, Duo Cai1, Shihai Liu1*

Advances in Pathogenesis and Non-surgical Therapy of Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma

Yichen Wu1, Jia Chen2*

Quercetin Inhibits the Proliferation and Migration of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma by Targeting the Prognostic-related Gene MMP1 via Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Zhenhua Zu1,2#, Zhongguo Zhu3#, Zhiyu Xia2, Hongrang Chen1*, Yongsheng Li1*

Huge Lung Fibroleiomyomatous Hamartoma in the Pleural Cavity – A Case report

Minghui Liu1#, Xin Li1#, Hongbing Zhang1, Fan Ren1, Ming Dong1, Chunqiu Xia1, Jun Chen1,2*

Increased Expression of IL-17A, IL-6, STAT3, TGF-β, and VEGF: Potential Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer?

Zishen Xiao1, Chengxia Bai1, Teng Zhao1, Jiayu Lin1, Lijuan Yang1, Jian Liu2, Zhenjiang Wang1, Ying Sun3,4, Yanbo Liu1*

Identification of NSD2 as a Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Wei Zhao1#, Xinyu Xiao1#, Yu Gao1,2, Shanshan Liu3, Xiuzhen Zhang1, Changhong Yang1, Qiling Peng1, Ning Jiang2*, Jianwei Wang1*

Quercetin Inhibits Glioma Proliferation by Targeting CDK1 and CCNB1 - Bioinformatics and Network Pharmacology

Huaixu Li1#, Peng Gao1#, Haotian Tian1, Zhenyu Han2, Xingliang Dai1*, Hongwei Cheng1*

Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Yttrium-90 Microspheres in Hepatocellular Carcinoma – Applications and recent advances

Wei Wang1, Dawei Xie1, Bing Li1, Minghao Chen1*

Irreversible Electroporation in Pancreatic Cancer – Applications and recent advances

Yuanyuan Sun1, Qian Li2, Jia Hu2, Yanfang Liu2*, Xiaosong Li2*

Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T‑stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Shengen Yi, Xiongjian Cui, Li Xiong, Xiaofeng Deng, Dongni Pei, Yu Wen, Xiongying Miao

MicroRNAs are Related to Rituximab in Combination with Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone Resistance in Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

Haibo Huang1, Junjiao Gu1, Shuna Yao1, Zhihua Yao1, Yan Zhao1, Qingxin Xia2, Jie Ma2, Ling Mai3, Shujun Yang1, Yanyan Liu1

Comparison of Intra-voxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in the Evaluation of Focal Malignant Liver Masses

Jinrong Qu1, Xiang Li1, Lei Qin2, Lifeng Wang1, Junpeng Luo1, Jianwei Zhang1, Hongkai Zhang1, Jing Li1, Fei Sun3, Shouning Zhang1, Yanle Li1, Cuicui Liu1, Hailiang Li1

Extracting Breathing Signal Using Fourier Transform from Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Jing Cai1,2, Yilin Liu2, Fangfang Yin1,2

Split End Family RNA Binding Proteins: Novel Tumor Suppressors Coupling Transcriptional Regulation with RNA Processing

Hairui Su1, Yanyan Liu2, Xinyang Zhao1

Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

Pengxing  Zhang1, Xiaoling Pang2,3, Yanyang Tu1,4

Associations of Age and Chemotherapy with Late Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Toxicity in a Hypofractionated Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Schedule in Post‑mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients

Mohammad Akram1, Ghufran Nahid1, Shahid Ali Siddiqui1, Ruquiya Afrose2

Monitoring of Disease Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia‑chronic Phase Patients Treated with Indian Generic Veenat (NATCO) Imatinib Mesylate: A Tertiary Care Experience

Khushboo Dewan, Tathagat Chatterjee

Review of Cancer Immunotherapy: Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death‑ligand 1 Antibodies

Tengfei Zhang1,2, Ling Cao1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongli Yue1, Yu Ping1, Hong Li1, Lan Huang1, Yi Zhang1,3,4,5

Systematic Review of MicroRNAs and its Therapeutic Potential in Glioma

Nan Liu1, Yanyang Tu2

The Involvement of p53‑miR‑34a‑CDK4 Signaling During the Development of Cervical Cancer

Huijun Zuo, Jieqi Xiong, Hongwei Chen, Sisun Liu, Qiaoying Gong, Fei Guo

Unusual Clinical Presentation of a Rare Type of Breast Malignancy: A Case Report and a Short Review of Literature

Nadeesha J. Nawarathna1, Navam R. Kumarasinghe1, Palitha Rathnayake2,
Ranjith J. K. Seneviratne1

Sweet’s Syndrome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with t (9:22)

Khushboo Dewan, Shailaja Shukla

Analysis of the Correlationship between Prostate Specific Antigen Related Variables and Risk Factor in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma

Daoyuan Wang1, Tiejun Yang2, Yongqiang Zou1, Xinqiang Yang1

Recent Progress in Genetic and Epigenetic Profile of Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Zhengxi He1, Bin Li1,2

Strategies for Management of Spinal Metastases: A Comprehensive Review

Zhantao Deng, Bin Xu, Jiewen Jin, Jianning Zhao, Haidong Xu

Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

Xia Mao, Yanqiong Zhang, Na Lin

Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yupeng Lei1, Hongxia Chen2, Pi Liu1, Xiaodong Zhou1

Expression Characteristics of miR‑10b in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Gang Li, Yunteng Zhao, Jianqi Wang, Haoran Huang, Mengwen Zhang

An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

Zonggao Shi, M. Sharon Stack

Promoter Methylated Tumor Suppressor Genes in Glioma

Yingduan Cheng1, Yanyang Tu2, Pei Liang3

Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

Chenyang Liu1*, Qian Qian2*, Shen Geng1, Wenkui Sun1, Yi Shi1

Functional Perspective and Implications of Gene Expression by Noncoding RNAs

Xiaoshuang Yan1, Huanyu Xu2, Zhonghai Yan3

Expression of E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Multiple Myeloma Patients after Treatment with the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib

James Joseph Driscoll

miR‑505 Downregulates 6‑Phosphofructo‑2‑Kinase/ Fructose‑2,6‑Biphosphatase 4 to Promote Cell Death in Glioblastoma

Esther H. Chung, Hongwei Yang, Hongyan Xing, Rona S. Carroll, Mark D. Johnson

Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosing Bone Tumors

Sonal Mahajan1, Akash Arvind Saoji2, Anil Agrawal1

Histone H2A and H2B Deubiquitinase in Developmental Disease and Cancer

Demeng Chen1, Caifeng Dai2, Yizhou Jiang3

Genetic Characteristics of Glioblastoma: Clinical Implications of Heterogeneity

Qian Li1, Yanyang Tu1,2

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Normal Platelet Count

Khushboo Dewan, Kiran Agarwal

Galanin is a Novel Epigenetic Silenced Functional Tumor Suppressor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Shengkun Sun1*, Axiang Xu1*, Guoqiang Yang1, Yingduan Cheng2


Selenium Dioxide Induced Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells via Regulating Apoptosis-related Let-7a MicroRNA and Proteins

Sisun Liu1, Jieqi Xiong2, Ling Guo3, Min Xiu1,4, Feng He1,4, Yuanlei Lou5, Fei Guo6,7

Low Expression of Polo‑like Kinase 1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Liver Cancer

Weixia Li1, Kunpeng Liu1, Dechen Lin2, Xin Xu2, Haizhen Lu3, Xinyu Bi4, Mingrong Wang2

Extracorporeal Photopheresis for Steroid‑refractory Chronic Graft‑versus‑host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta‑Analysis

Runzhe Chen1, Baoan Chen1, Peter Dreger2, Michael Schmitt2, Anita Schmitt2

Glucans and Cancer: Historical Perspective

Petr Sima1, Luca Vannucci1, Vaclav Vetvicka2

Implications of Circadian Rhythm Regulation by microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer

Song Wu1, Andrew Fesler2, Jingfang Ju2

BCL2 Family, Mitochondrial Apoptosis, and Beyond

Haiming Dai1, X. Wei Meng2, Scott H. Kaufmann2

Quantum Dot‑based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications

Li Zhou1, Jingzhe Yan2, Lingxia Tong3, Xuezhe Han4, Xuefeng Wu5, Peng Guo6

CD24 as a Molecular Marker in Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review

Lu Huang1, Weiguo Lv2, Xiaofeng Zhao1

Etiological Trends in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Institutional Study

Varsha Salian, Chethana Dinakar, Pushparaja Shetty, Vidya Ajila

Effect of Irinotecan Combined with Cetuximab on Liver Function in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer with Liver Metastases

Yan Liang1, Yang Li2, Xin Li3, Jianfu Zhao4

The Role of Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer: Challenges for Targeted Therapy, Immune Modulating Treatment, Early Detection, and Less Invasive Operations

Khaled Kyle Wong1, Zhirong Qian2, Yi Le3

Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Natural Products

Weidong Li1,2*, Cihui Chen3*, Zheng Liu2, Baojin Hua1

The Potential of Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer: A Focus on Breast Cancer

Mahnaz M. Kazi, Trupti I. Trivedi, Toral P. Kobawala, Nandita R. Ghosh

Imaging‑driven Digital Biomarkers

Enrico Capobianco

Target‑Matching Accuracy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer: An Investigation Based on Four‑Dimensional Digital Human Phantom

Jing Cai1,2, Kate Turner2, Xiao Liang2, W. Paul Segars2,3, Chris R. Kelsey1, David Yoo1, Lei Ren1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2

Downregulation of Death‑associated Protein Kinase 3 and Caspase‑3 Correlate to the Progression and Poor Prognosis of Gliomas

Ye Song, Tianshi Que, Hao Long, Xi’an Zhang, Luxiong Fang, Zhiyong Li, Songtao Qi

Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

Ana Paula Cleto Marolla1, Jaques Waisberg2, Gabriela Tognini Saba2, Demétrius Eduardo Germini2, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal1

Melanoma Antigen Gene Family in the Cancer Immunotherapy

Fengyu Zhu1, Yu Liang1, Demeng Chen2, Yang Li1

Combined Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Collision Tumor Variation

Kaijun Huang1, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios1, Wanhua Yang2, Rajeev L. Balmiki3

Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line (Michigan Cancer Foundation‑7)

Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini

Impact of Age on the Biochemical Failure and Androgen Suppression after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men

Nigel P. Murray1,2, Eduardo Reyes1,3, Nelson Orellana1, Cynthia Fuentealba1, Omar Jacob1

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: 35 Years of a Single Institution’s Experience

Rana I. Mahmood1,2, Mohammed Aldehaim1,3, Fazal Hussain4, Tusneem A. Elhassan4,
Zubeir A. Khan5, Muhammad A. Memon6

Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Therapy: A Discussion

Yeling Ouyang1, Xi Chen2, Chunyun Zhang1, Vichitra Bunyamanop1, Jianfeng Guo3

The Progress in Molecular Biomarkers of Gliomas

Jing Qi1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Correlation between Paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 and its Therapeutic Efficacy and Severe Toxicities in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Shuyao Zhang1*, Muyin Sun2*, Yun Yuan3*, Miaojun Wang4*, Yuqi She1*, Li Zhou5, Congzhu Li5, Chen Chen1, Shengqi Zhang4

Identifying Gaps and Relative Opportunities for Discovering Membrane Proteomic Biomarkers of Triple‑negative Breast Cancer as a Translational Priority

Bhooma Venkatraman

The Molecular Mechanism and Regulatory Pathways of Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Wang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems and Three‑dimensional Cell Cultures in Cancer Treatments and Research

Wenjin Shi1, Ding Weng2,3, Wanting Niu2,3

Choline Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TRAIL in the Treatment of Colorectal Tumors and Overcomes TRAIL Resistance

Juan Carlos Lacal1, Ladislav Andera2

MicroRNA Regulating Metabolic Reprogramming in Tumor Cells: New Tumor Markers

Daniel Otero‑Albiol, Blanca Felipe‑Abrio

Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Genome‑wide Perspective

José M. Santos‑Pereira1, Sandra Muñoz‑Galván2

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide+ Metabolism Biomarkers in Malignant Gliomas

Manuel P. Jiménez‑García, Eva M. Verdugo‑Sivianes, Antonio Lucena‑Cacace

Patient-derived Xenografts as Models for Personalized Medicine Research in Cancer

Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero

Genome‑wide Transcriptome Analysis of Prostate Cancer Tissue Identified Overexpression of Specific Members of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus‑K Family

Behnam Sayanjali1,2

Clinical Utility of Interleukin‑18 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Reecha A. Parikh, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Mahnaz M. Kazi, Nandita R. Ghosh

Current and Future Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced Soft‑tissue Sarcoma beyond Anthracyclines and Ifosfamide

Nadia Hindi1,2, Javier Martin‑Broto1,2

The Genomic Organization and Function of IRX1 in Tumorigenesis and Development

Pengxing Zhang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Stem Cell‑based Approach in Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer Management

Yi‑Zhou Jiang1, Demeng Chen2

Mutation Detection with a Liquid Biopsy 96 Mutation Assay in Cancer Patients and Healthy Donors

Aaron Yun Chen, Glenn D. Braunstein, Megan S. Anselmo, Jair A. Jaboni, Fernando Troy Viloria, Julie A. Neidich, Xiang Li, Anja Kammesheidt

The Application of Estrogen Receptor‑1 Mutations’ Detection through Circulating Tumor DNA in Breast Cancer

Binliang Liu, Yalan Yang, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma

Circulating MicroRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs: Liquid Biomarkers in Thoracic Cancers

Pablo Reclusa1, Anna Valentino1, Rafael Sirera1,2, Martin Frederik Dietrich3, Luis Estuardo Raez3, Christian Rolfo1

Exosomes Biology: Function and Clinical Implications in Lung Cancer

Martin Frederik Dietrich1, Christian Rolfo2, Pablo Reclusa2, Marco Giallombardo2, Anna Valentino2, Luis E. Raez1

Circulating Tumor DNA: A Potential Biomarker from Solid Tumors’ Monitor to Anticancer Therapies

Ting Chen1,2, Rongzhang He1,3, Xinglin Hu1,3,4, Weihao Luo1, Zheng Hu1,3, Jia Li1, Lili Duan1, Yali Xie1,2, Wenna Luo1,2, Tan Tan1,2, Di‑Xian Luo1,2

Novel Molecular Multilevel Targeted Antitumor Agents

Poonam Sonawane1, Young A. Choi1, Hetal Pandya2, Denise M. Herpai1, Izabela Fokt3,
Waldemar Priebe3, Waldemar Debinski1

Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Effects and Clinical Relevance

Pei Liang, Michael Gao Jr.

Stemness‑related Markers in Cancer

Wenxiu Zhao1, Yvonne Li2, Xun Zhang1

Autophagy Regulated by miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Resistance

Andrew Fesler1, Hua Liu1, Ning Wu1,2, Fei Liu3, Peixue Ling3, Jingfang Ju1,3

Gastric Metastases Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: A Brief Literature Review

Simona Gurzu1,2,3, Marius Alexandru Beleaua1, Laura Banias2, Ioan Jung1

Possibility of Specific Expression of the Protein Toxins at the Tumor Site with Tumor‑specialized Promoter

Liyuan Zhou1,2, Yujun Li1,2, Changchen Hu3, Binquan Wang1,2

SKI‑178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models

Jeremy A. Hengst1,2, Taryn E. Dick1,2, Arati Sharma1, Kenichiro Doi3, Shailaja Hegde4, Su‑Fern Tan5, Laura M. Geffert1,2, Todd E. Fox5, Arun K. Sharma1, Dhimant Desai1, Shantu Amin1, Mark Kester5, Thomas P. Loughran5, Robert F. Paulson4, David F. Claxton6, Hong‑Gang Wang3, Jong K. Yun1,2

A T‑cell Engager‑armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to Target the Tumor Stroma

Feng Yu1, Bangxing Hong1, Xiao‑Tong Song1,2,3

Real‑world Experience with Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration‑resistant Prostate Cancer

Yasar Ahmed1, Nemer Osman1, Rizwan Sheikh2, Sarah Picardo1, Geoffrey Watson1

Combination of Interleukin‑11Rα Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‑cells and Programmed Death‑1 Blockade as an Approach to Targeting Osteosarcoma Cells In vitro

Hatel Rana Moonat, Gangxiong Huang, Pooja Dhupkar, Keri Schadler, Nancy Gordon,
Eugenie Kleinerman

Efficacy and Safety of Paclitaxel‑based Therapy and Nonpaclitaxel‑based Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

Tongwei Wu, Xiao Yang, Min An, Wenqin Luo, Danxian Cai, Xiaolong Qi

Motion Estimation of the Liver Based on Deformable Image Registration: A Comparison Between Four‑Dimensional‑Computed Tomography and Four‑Dimensional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xiao Liang1, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2, Yilin Liu1, Brian Czito2, Manisha Palta2, Mustafa Bashir3, Jing Cai1,2

A Feasibility Study of Applying Thermal Imaging to Assist Quality Assurance of High‑Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Xiaofeng Zhu1, Yu Lei1, Dandan Zheng1, Sicong Li1, Vivek Verma1, Mutian Zhang1, Qinghui Zhang1, Xiaoli Tang2, Jun Lian2, Sha X. Chang2, Haijun Song3, Sumin Zhou1, Charles A. Enke1

Role of Exosome microRNA in Breast Cancer

Wang Qu, Ma Fei, Binghe Xu

Recent Progress in Technological Improvement and Biomedical Applications of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas System

Yanlan Li1,2*, Zheng Hu1*, Yufang Yin3, Rongzhang He1, Jian Hu1, Weihao Luo1, Jia Li1, Gebo Wen2, Li Xiao1, Kai Li1, Duanfang Liao4, Di-Xian Luo1,5

The Significance of Nuclear Factor‑Kappa B Signaling Pathway in Glioma: A Review

Xiaoshan Xu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Markerless Four‑Dimensional‑Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection‑Phase Sorting Using Prior Knowledge and Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

Lei Zhang1,2, Yawei Zhang2, You Zhang1,2,3, Wendy B. Harris1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,4, Jing Cai1,4,5, Lei Ren1,2

The Producing Capabilities of Interferon‑g and Interleukin‑10 of Spleen Cells in Primary and Metastasized Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells-implanted Mice

Yasuka Azuma1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Toshihiro Inagaki4, Eiichi Chihara2, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Nobuo Kondoh1

“Eating” Cancer Cells by Blocking CD47 Signaling: Cancer Therapy by Targeting the Innate Immune Checkpoint

Yi‑Rong Xiang, Li Liu

Glycosylation is Involved in Malignant Properties of Cancer Cells

Kazunori Hamamura1, Koichi Furukawa2

Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Era of Precision Medicine

Qing‑Hao Zhu1*, Qing‑Chao Shang1*, Zhi‑Hao Hu1*, Yuan Liu2, Bo Li1, Bo Wang1, An‑Hui Wang1

I‑Kappa‑B Kinase‑epsilon Activates Nuclear Factor‑kappa B and STAT5B and Supports Glioblastoma Growth but Amlexanox Shows Little Therapeutic Potential in These Tumors

Nadège Dubois1, Sharon Berendsen2, Aurélie Henry1,2, Minh Nguyen1, Vincent Bours1,
Pierre Alain Robe1,2

Suppressive Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Interferon‑g‑Producing Capability of Spleen Cells was Specifically Enhanced through Humoral Mediator(s) from Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sq‑1979 Cells In Vitro

Toshihiro Inagaki1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Eiichi Chihara4, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Shinichiro Sumitomo5, Nobuo Kondoh1

An Interplay Between MicroRNA and SOX4 in the Regulation of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Progression

Anjali Geethadevi1, Ansul Sharma2, Manish Kumar Sharma3, Deepak Parashar1

MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Prostate Cancer of African‑American and European‑American Men

Ernest K. Amankwah

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Screening Anticancer Agents

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Taoli Sun3, Shengping Zhang1, Hongyan Zhang1

Panobinostat and Its Combination with 3‑Deazaneplanocin‑A Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit In vitro Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in GOS‑3 Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Javier de la Rosa*, Alejandro Urdiciain*, Juan Jesús Aznar‑Morales, Bárbara Meléndez1,
Juan A. Rey2, Miguel A. Idoate3, Javier S. Castresana

Cancer Stem‑Like Cells Have Cisplatin Resistance and miR‑93 Regulate p21 Expression in Breast Cancer

Akiko Sasaki1, Yuko Tsunoda2, Kanji Furuya3, Hideto Oyamada1, Mayumi Tsuji1, Yuko Udaka1, Masahiro Hosonuma1, Haruna Shirako1, Nana Ichimura1, Yuji Kiuchi1

The Contribution of Hexokinase 2 in Glioma

Hui Liu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang3, Yanyang Tu1

The Mechanism of BMI1 in Regulating Cancer Stemness Maintenance, Metastasis, Chemo‑ and Radiation Resistance

Xiaoshan Xu, Zhen Wang, Nan Liu, Pengxing Zhang, Hui Liu, Jing Qi, Yanyang Tu

A Multisource Adaptive Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Technique for Versatile Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lei Zhang1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,3, Brittany Moore1,2, Silu Han1,2, Jing Cai1,2,4

Senescence and Cancer

Sulin Zeng1,2, Wen H. Shen2, Li Liu1

The “Wild”‑type Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Heterogeneity on Molecule Characteristics and Clinical Features

Yanhua Mou1, Quan Wang1, Bin Li1,2

Retreatment with Cabazitaxel in a Long‑Surviving Patient with Castration‑Resistant Prostate Cancer and Visceral Metastasis

Raquel Luque Caro, Carmen Sánchez Toro, Lucia Ochoa Vallejo

Therapy‑Induced Histopathological Changes in Breast Cancers: The Changing Role of Pathology in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Shazima Sheereen1, Flora D. Lobo1, Waseemoddin Patel2, Shamama Sheereen3,
Abhishek Singh Nayyar4, Mubeen Khan5

Glioma Research in the Era of Medical Big Data

Feiyifan Wang1, Christopher J. Pirozzi2, Xuejun Li1

Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Adenomas: Case Report and Literature Review

Jian‑Hong Zhong1,2, Kang Chen1, Bhavesh K. Ahir3, Qi Huang4, Ye Wu4, Cheng‑Cheng Liao1, Rong‑Rong Jia1, Bang‑De Xiang1,2, Le‑Qun Li1,2

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, Role in Cancer, and Novel Drug Target

Antonio Lucena‑Cacace1,2,3, Amancio Carnero1,2

Enhanced Anticancer Effect by Combination of Proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on Bladder Cancer Cells

Michael Zhang, Kelvin Zheng, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno

Molecular Insights Turning Game for Management of Ependymoma: A Review of Literature

Ajay Sasidharan, Rahul Krishnatry

IDH Gene Mutation in Glioma

Leping Liu1, Xuejun Li1,2

Challenges and Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Report and Literature Review

Gerard Cathal Millen1, Karen A. Manias1,2, Andrew C. Peet1,2, Jenny K. Adamski1

Assessing the Feasibility of Using Deformable Registration for Onboard Multimodality‑Based Target Localization in Radiation Therapy

Ge Ren1,2,3, Yawei Zhang1,2, Lei Ren1,2

Research Advancement in the Tumor Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Qing Du1, Xiaoying Ji2, Guangjing Yin3, Dengxian Wei3, Pengcheng Lin1, Yongchang Lu1,
Yugui Li3, Qiaohong Yang4, Shizhu Liu5, Jinliang Ku5, Wenbin Guan6, Yuanzhi Lu7

Novel Insights into the Role of Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Lei Zhang1, Guoyu Qiu2, Xiaohui Xu2, Yufeng Zhou3, Ruiming Chang4

Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Unusual Presenting Symptoms

Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal

The Prognostic Role of Lactate in Patients Who Achieved Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Dongni Ren1, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1,2

Inhibitory Effect of Hyaluronidase‑4 in a Rat Spinal Cord Hemisection Model

Xipeng Wang1,2, Mitsuteru Yokoyama2, Ping Liu3

Research and Development of Anticancer Agents under the Guidance of Biomarkers

Xiaohui Xu1, Guoyu Qiu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Ruling Jia1, Bo Zhao1

Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Mansoor C. Abdulla

Phosphorylation of BRCA1‑Associated Protein 1 as an Important Mechanism in the Evasion of Tumorigenesis: A Perspective

Guru Prasad Sharma1, Anjali Geethadevi2, Jyotsna Mishra3, G. Anupa4, Kapilesh Jadhav5,
K. S. Vikramdeo6, Deepak Parashar2

Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of Biliary‑Pancreatic System

Ge Zengzheng1, Huang-Sheng Ling2, Ming-Feng Li2, Xu Xiaoyan1, Yao Kai1, Xu Tongzhen3,
Ge Zengyu4, Li Zhou5

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Study the Biological Activity of Anticancer Agent

Guoyu Qiu1, Xiaohui Xu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Huan Yang5

Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Breast Tumors

Steven Lehrer1, Peter H. Rheinstein2

OSMCC: An Online Survival Analysis Tool for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai1, Qiang Wang1, Xiaoxiao Sun1, Yifang Dang1, JiaJia Lv1,2, Junfang Xin1, Wan Zhu3, Yongqiang Li1, Xinying Ji1, Xiangqian Guo1

Protective Activity of Selenium against 5‑Fluorouracil‑Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Beauty Tokoni Amgbare

Advances on the Components of Fibrinolytic System in Malignant Tumors

Zengzheng Ge1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Zengyu Ge2, Shaopeng Zhou3, Xiulin Li1, Kai Yao1, Lan Deng4

A Patient with Persistent Foot Swelling after Ankle Sprain: B‑Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mimicking Soft‑tissue Sarcoma

Crystal R. Montgomery‑Goecker1, Andrew A. Martin2, Charles F. Timmons3, Dinesh Rakheja3, Veena Rajaram3, Hung S. Luu3

Coenzyme Q10 and Resveratrol Abrogate Paclitaxel‑Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Loritta Wasini Harris

Progress in Clinical Follow‑up Study of Dendritic Cells Combined with Cytokine‑Induced Killer for Stomach Cancer

Ling Wang1,2, Run Wan1,2, Cong Chen1,2, Ruiliang Su1,2, Yumin Li1,2

Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy as the Initial Manifestation in Carcinoma of Cervix

Priyanka Priyaarshini1, Tapan Kumar Sahoo2

ABO Typing Error Resolution and Transfusion Support in a Case of an Acute Leukemia Patient Showing Loss of Antigen Expression

Debasish Mishra1, Gopal Krushna Ray1, Smita Mahapatra2, Pankaj Parida2

Protein Disulfide Isomerase A3: A Potential Regulatory Factor of Colon Epithelial Cells

Yang Li1, Zhenfan Huang2, Haiping Jiang3

Clinicopathological Association of p16 and its Impact on Outcome of Chemoradiation in Head‑and‑Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Patients in North‑East India

Srigopal Mohanty1, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi2, Nithin Raj Daniel3, Dulasi Raman Ponna4,
Ph. Madhubala Devi5, Laishram Jaichand Singh2

Potential Inhibitor for 2019‑Novel Coronaviruses in Drug Development

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Lei Zhang3, Lingxue Zhuang4, Wutang Jing5, Lupeng Ji6, Guoyu Qiu1

Best‑Match Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Mixed Autoantibodies

Debasish Mishra1, Dibyajyoti Sahoo1, Smita Mahapatra2, Ashutosh Panigrahi3

Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Pheochromocytoma

Nadeema Rafiq1, Tauseef Nabi2, Sajad Ahmad Dar3, Shahnawaz Rasool4

Comparison of Histopathological Grading and Staging of Breast Cancer with p53‑Positive and Transforming Growth Factor‑Beta Receptor 2‑Negative Immunohistochemical Marker Expression Cases

Palash Kumar Mandal1, Anindya Adhikari2, Subir Biswas3, Amita Giri4, Arnab Gupta5,
Arindam Bhattacharya6

Chemical Compositions and Antiproliferative Effect of Essential Oil of Asafoetida on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line and Female Wistar Rats

Seyyed Majid Bagheri1,2, Davood Javidmehr3, Mohammad Ghaffari1, Ehsan Ghoderti‑Shatori4

Cyclooxygenase‑2 Contributes to Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting an Immunosuppressive Environment

Mun Kyoung Kim1, Aidin Iravani2, Matthew K. Topham2,3

Potential role of CircMET as A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Yan Liu1,2,3,4#, Chen Cui1,2,3,4#, Jidong Liu1,2,3,4, Peng Lin1,2,3,4,Kai Liang1,2,3,4, Peng Su5, Xinguo Hou1,2,3,4, Chuan Wang1,2,3,4, Jinbo Liu1,2,3,4, Bo Chen6, Hong Lai1,2,3,4, Yujing Sun1,2,3,4* and Li Chen 1,2,3,4*

Cuproptosis-related Genes in Glioblastoma as Potential Therapeutic Targets

Zhiyu Xia1,2, Haotian Tian1, Lei Shu1,2, Guozhang Tang3, Zhenyu Han4, Yangchun Hu1*, Xingliang Dai1*

Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments by Porous Inorganic Nanocarriers

Jianfeng Xu1,2, Hanwen Zhang1,2, Xiaohui Song1,2, Yangong Zheng3, Qingning Li1,2,4*

Delayed (20 Years) post-surgical Esophageal Metastasis of Breast Cancer - A Case Report

Bowen Hu1#, Lingyu Du2#, Hongya Xie1, Jun Ma1, Yong Yang1*, Jie Tan2*

Subtyping of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Its Clinical Meaning

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai, Zhendong Lu, Fengling Wang, Muhammad Usman Akbar, Saadullah Khattak, Muhammad Badar, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Longxiang Xie, Yongqiang Li, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo

Construction of Glioma Prognosis Model and Exploration of Related Regulatory Mechanism of Model Gene

Suxia Hu, Abdusemer Reyimu, Wubi Zhou, Xiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Xia Chen, Weiqiang Li, Jingjing Dai

ESRP2 as a Non-independent Potential Biomarker-Current Progress in Tumors

Yuting Chen, Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo, Chengkuan Zhao, Shuyao Zhang

Resection of Bladder Tumors at the Ureteral Orifice Using a Hook Plasma Electrode: A Case Report

Jun Li, Ziyong Wang, Qilin Wang

Structural Characterization and Bioactivity for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides

Jinghua Qi1,2,  Hangping Chen3,Huaqing Lin2,4,Hongyuan Chen1,2,5* and Wen Rui2,3,5,6*

The Role of IL-22 in the Prevention of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Liver Injury

Xingli Qi1,2, Huaqing Lin2,3, Wen Rui2,3,4,5 and Hongyuan Chen1,2,3

RBM15 and YTHDF3 as Positive Prognostic Predictors in ESCC: A Bioinformatic Analysis Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)

Yulou Luo1, Lan Chen2, Ximing Qu3, Na Yi3, Jihua Ran4, Yan Chen3,5*

Mining and Analysis of Adverse Drug Reaction Signals Induced by Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Based on the FAERS Database

Xiumin Zhang1,2#, Xinyue Lin1,3#, Siman Su1,3#, Wei He3, Yuying Huang4, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xiaoshan Chen3, Jialin Zhong3, Chong Liu3, Wang Chen3, Chengcheng Xu3, Ping Yang5, Man Zhang5, Yanli Lei5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*

Advancements in Immunotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

Min Jiang1#, Rui Zheng1#, Ling Shao1, Ning Yao2, Zhengmao Lu1*

Tumor Regression after COVID-19 Infection in Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: A Case Report

Qiaoxin Lin1, Bin Liang1, Yangyang Li2, Ling Tian3*, Dianna Gu1*

Mining and Analysis of Adverse Events of BRAF Inhibitors Based on FDA Reporting System

Silan Peng1,2#, Danling Zheng1,3#, Yanli Lei4#, Wang Chen3, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xinyue Lin1, Xiaoshan Chen3, Wei He3, Li Li3, Qiuzhen Zhang5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*

Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Fever, Anemia, Hypoproteinemia: A Rare and Strange Case Report and Literature Review

Zhenghang Li1, Yuxian Wei1*

Construction of Cuproptosis-Related LncRNA Signature as a Prognostic Model Associated with Immune Microenvironment for Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Jiyao Yu1#, Shukai Zhang2#, Qingwen Ran3, Xuemei Li4,5,6*

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