Translational Surgery

Review | Open Access

Vol.7 (2023) | Issue 1 | Page No: 1-11

Structural Characterization and Bioactivity for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides

Jinghua Qi1,2,  Hangping Chen3,Huaqing Lin2,4,Hongyuan Chen1,2,5* and Wen Rui2,3,5,6*


1. Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Life Sciences and Biopharmaceuticals, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province, PR China.

2. Centrefor Novel Drug Research and Development, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province, PR China.

3. GDPU-HKU Zhongshan Biomedical Innovation Plaform, Zhongshan 528437, Guangdong Province, PR China.

4. College of Pharmacy,Jinan University,601 Huangpu Avenue West,Guangzhou,510632,China

5. Guangdong Engineering & Technology Research Center of Topical Precise Drug Delivery System, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province, PR China.

6. Key Laboratory of Digital Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica of State Administration of TCM, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province, PR China. 6. Guangdong Cosmetics Engineering & Technology Research Center,Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province, PR China.


* Corresponding authors: Hong-Yuan Chen, E-mail:, Tel & Fax: +86-20-3935-2186;Wen Rui, E-mail:, Tel&Fax: +86-20-3935-2523.

Important Dates  

Date of Submission:   23-Mar-2022

Date of Acceptance:   04-Apr-2023

Date of Publication:   15-Jul-2023


Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), the major bioactive compounds of L. barbarum berries, exhibit several different pharmacological actions. The physicochemical characteristics of polysaccharides are intimately related to their bioactivities. Therefore, to thoroughly understand the extraction process as well as the structural and biological activities of LBPs, the extraction methods and structural characterization of LBPs were examined. The biological functions and related mechanisms of LBPs including antioxidant function, neuroprotection, immunomodulatory function, and antitumor activity were reviewed. This review offers an overview of LBPs as well as a theoretical framework for further investigation and expansion of LBPs’ applications in the realms of food and medicine.

Keywords: Lycium barbarum polysaccharides; extraction methods; structural characterization; antioxidant function; neuroprotective effects; immune regulating function; antitumor activity


Lycium Barbarum L., a member of the Solanaceae family, is widely cultivated in China. The fruit of L. barbarum, also known as goji berry, has been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine as a common medicinal plant and functional food for more than 2,300 years.[1] A well-known Chinese herbalist named Ni Zhu-Mo claimed in his "Convergent Speech on the Materia Medica" that the Goji berry could provide energy and blood, balance Yin and Yang and reduce internal heat.[2] It is mentioned in the "Compendium of Materia Medica" because of its ability to nourish the liver and kidneys and brighten the eyes. Additionally, it helps in the treatment of migraines, lethargy, infertility, foggy eyesight, and stomach pain.[3] L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), flavonoids, alkaloids, Lycium colors, amino acids, and other active substances can be found in Goji berries. Polysaccharides, weighing between 10 and 2300 kDa, are also the most prominent active ingredients in Goji berries, about 5%–8% of the dry fruit.[4] LBPs are made up of six monosaccharides.[5] The activities of different LBP fractions vary, and one important factor affecting these activities is the galacturonic acid content. The biological effects of LBPs include antioxidant, neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, anticancer, radiation protection, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, and anti-osteoporosis activities.[6] As a result, LBPs play a crucial biological role that safeguards human health. The main topics of this review are the structural characterization and bioactivity of LBPs.


Extraction Methods

The chemical structure of polysaccharides is related directly to the extraction method. The principle of LBPs extraction is to extract polysaccharides by breaking and dissociating cell walls under mild circumstances without affecting the nature of the polysaccharides.[7] The withdrawal rate and bioactivity of LBPs are the main considerations when choosing the extraction method.[8] Before the extraction of LBPs, Goji berries are usually dried and ground into powder, added with chloroform: methanol (2:1) to degrease at reflux, and then soaked and stirred with 80% ethanol to remove small-molecule impurities, such as oligosaccharides and pigments.[9] Another method is to reflux the ground wolfberry mixed in petroleum ether at 80°C to remove lipids, oligosaccharides, and small-molecule pigments.[10] A water-soluble crude polysaccharide mixture is then extracted after filtering and drying. The post-harvest period of LBPs is affected by the ambient temperature and the endogenous enzyme metabolism, which in turn affects the chemical structure of LBPs. In consequence, the above process is usually followed to prepare LBPs regardless of the extraction technique used. The main extraction methods of LBPs include the traditional aqueous extraction method, the new ultrasound-assisted extraction method (UAE), the microwave-assisted extraction method (MAE), the enzyme-assisted extraction method (EAE), and other combined methods, which all have advantages and disadvantages.[11] The best solvent for extraction is water. The yield of the hot water extraction (HWE) method is 7.46%-7.63% with a liquid-solid ratio of 70:1, pH 10, 65oC, and 3.5 h soaking.[12] With the technology development in recent years, new auxiliary methods with high extraction rates and short time consumption have been developed based on the HWE under the ideal extraction circumstances. Compared with the HWE, the best extraction process parameters are an extraction time of 30 min, an extraction temperature of 60 °C, a material-to-liquid ratio of 20 g/600 mL, a power density of 300 W/L, and an ultrasonic frequency of 28 kHz. This results in an increase in crude polysaccharide yield by dual-frequency ultrasound of 73.41%.[12] The optimal process parameters for dynamic MAE are a water-to-material ratio of 31.5 mL/g, an extraction period of 25.8 min, and a microwave power of 544.0 W. The LBPs extracted by this green, rapid, and efficient technique are a new type of natural antioxidant, which have the potential to be developed and applied in functional food and medicine.[13] The EAE with mild conditions has low investment cost and low energy consumption. Moreover, the UAE is an effective method with a simple and time-saving extraction process. The maximum yield of LBPs extracted by the ultrasound-assisted enzymatic method is 6.81±0.10% under the cellulose concentration of 2.0%, papain concentration of 1.0%, period of 91 minutes, the temperature of 59.7°C, and pH of 5.0 by orthogonal test and response surface test design.[14] The optimal process of ultrasound-enhanced subcritical water extraction (UESWE) at 100 °C, 53 min of extraction time, 26 mL/g of liquid, and 160 W of ultrasonic power can combine the environmental-friendly subcritical water with vigorous ultrasonic vibration.[15] Therefore, the UESWE can achieve a higher efficiency to meet the needs of modern industrialization with little effect on the medicinal properties of LBPs and retains significant antioxidant activity. Under otherwise identical conditions, different methods have an important impact on the nature and composition of LBPs. When hot water extraction was carried out in 100 °C boiling water, to prepare the fruit-water mixture for ultrasonic extraction, a 360 W ultrasonic homogenizer was used at room temperature. When subcritical water extraction (SWE) was carried out at 110 °C and 5 MPa, the combination was once sonicated with an ultrasonic processor (160 W) at 110 °C and 5 MPa in ultrasound-enhanced SWE (USWE). A comparison of the above methods concludes that USWE has the highest rate (14%), with significant antioxidant activity and immunoreactivity, and temperature and ultrasound are the main elements influencing the extraction rate, chemical composition, and bioactivity of LBPs.[16] Different methods are available for extracting different target activities. In general, the HWE is suitable for extracting total sugars and acidic polysaccharides; the MAE is appropriate for extracting glycoprotein complexes; the LBPs extracted by pressurized extraction, UUAE, and HWE have better immunomodulatory activity.[17] However, most of the current studies on LBPs extraction focus on improving the extraction rate, but the various extraction techniques have a decisive effect on the chemical structure, molecular weight, and conformation of LBPs, which in turn affect their bioactivity.[18] Consequently, an in-depth investigation of the chemical structure of LBPs is necessary and important. Figure 1 shows the extraction, purification, and identification of LBPs.


Purification & Identification 

So far, 33 polysaccharides; some of which are acidic heteropolysaccharides, polypeptides, or parts of proteins have been identified as LBPs. The glycoconjugates consist of monosaccharides and amino acid residues that are mainly composed of glycopeptide bonds.[19],[20],[21] Before being used in the purification and fractionation methods, the crude LBP extraction is deproteinized by using the zymolysis process, savage method, or aqueous two-phase extraction with the triblock copolymer, salt, and dialysis membrane separation. Anion-exchange chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and macroporous resin extraction are the most common methods to separate and purify LBPs from Goji berries. Suitable chromatographic columns can be used for different properties and molecular weights of LBPs.

High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) is a common tool for determining the LBPs’ molecular weight and purity of LBPs. Firstly, polysaccharide samples are separated on a gel exclusion column and then detected with a differential refractive index detector or evaporative light scattering detector. Lastly, the polysaccharide's molecular weights are calculated by using different molecular weights of standard dextran and plotting the dextran exclusion curve. SEC can be combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) to independently determine the light scattering properties of polymers in solution and their absolute molecular weights. SEC-MALLS is recognized as one of the most potent macromolecular investigative approaches and is used to ascertain the pure polysaccharides (p-LBP) from L. barbarum’s absolute molecular mass.[22] Over 7 times as much p-LBP's absolute molecular weight as dextran standards were used to test it by HPSEC. These findings reveal that SEC-MALLS-RID is more accurate. Gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and high-performance LC (HPLC) are commonly used to resolve the composition and ratio of monosaccharides. As the large molecular weight and complex structure of polysaccharides, chemical techniques such as partial acid hydrolysis, methylation, pre-column derivatization, and Smith degradation are required before detection. Hydrochloric acid concentrated sulfuric acid, and trifluoroacetic acid are commonly used in acid hydrolysis, with trifluoroacetic acid being the most frequently used. With regard to GC of monosaccharide composition, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and pyridine are usually added to react with acetic anhydride for 30 minutes at 100°C to produce a sugar alcohol acetate derivative.[22],[23] Adding trifluoroacetic acid during monosaccharide composition is resolved by HPLC, and then 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) is used as the monosaccharide derivatization reagent.[24] Infrared spectroscopy is used to ascertain the chain conformation in the structure of polysaccharides and can identify the pyranose or furanose rings and their terminal configurations in monosaccharides as well as the glycosidic bond conformation and functional groups in polysaccharides. For example, LBP3b with a 4.92 kDa molecular weight was detected as an asymmetric structure.[25] Although many methods are used to analyze LBPs, it is difficult to elucidate their specific structures, which poses a challenge to exploring the conformational relationships and bioactivity mechanisms. Table 1 summarizes LBPs in terms of structural characterization and corresponding bioactivities.


Anti-oxidant activity 

When the body is subjected to various harmful external stimuli, the free radicals and reactive oxygen species in the body lose their dynamic balance, which leads to oxidative stress, further destroying the equilibrium state of the oxidative and anti-oxidative systems, thus causing tissue damage to the body. LBPs are pure natural antioxidants and have an obvious scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion radicals compared with other flavonoids and carotenoids.[34] Ultraviolet B irradiation is an important factor in skin damage, as it causes oxidative and inflammatory damage. LBPs have significant protective effects on photogenic damage, which may be related to the upregulation of antioxidant genes Nrf2 and TrxR1, indicating that LBPs can scavenge oxygen radicals and reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress.[35] Furthermore, LBPs can protect human skin fibroblast cells from UV-induced harm (due to the activation of oxidative reactions), hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury, ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial injury, and severe kidney damage by activating the Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathway to modulate oxidative markers.[36],[37],[38],[39] The antioxidant function of LBPs can prevent the increase of oxidative product levels after cyclophosphamide injection and thus treat ovarian damage by enabling the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway to reduce oxidative stress.[40] As for H2O2-induced skin cell injury, LBPs may restrain apoptosis by the Nrf2/Ho-1 signaling pathway being activated to enhance antioxidant enzymes.[41] LBPs also inhibit PM2.5-induced injury, which reduces apoptosis and autophagy through oxidative stress and the endoplasmic reticulum.[42] In the exhaustive exercise rat model and endothelial cells, LBPs increase the antioxidant stress signaling system Keap1/Nrf2 expression, reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory response.[43] Additionally, LBPs reduce the inflammatory response and propylene glycol levels in a rat model of heart failure brought on by pressure overload, indicating that LBPs have cardioprotective effects.[44] Based on the above reports, it can be inferred that the antioxidant activity of LBPs mainly activates the Nrf2 signaling pathway and other antioxidant signaling pathways, increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity and reducing oxidative stress.

Neuroprotective activity

The nervous system plays a leading role in regulating physiological functions in the body, and neurons located throughout the body respond to changes in the internal and external environments so that the body maintains normal life activities. LBPs have neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo, but their mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Neuronal diseases (e.g., retinal problems, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), spinal cord injury) affects a huge number of people globally and incur high societal and financial costs. In the nervous system, LBPs prevent neuronal damage induced by glucose/hypoxia reperfusion, beta-amyloid, glutamate,2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP), and estrogen level reduction-induced cognitive impairment. LBPs, via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activation, inhibit hypoglycemic/hypoxic reperfusion-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and improve antioxidant stress, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death, indicating LBPs have a protective effect on primary hippocampal neuronal injury.[45] In addition to a significant reduction in aβ42/aβ40 levels in N2a/APP695 cells, LBPs can label multiple targets in animal AD models, including synaptic plasticity, αβ pathology, and neuropathology, indicating that LBPs play a major role in the management of AD.[46],[47] For glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, LBPs reduce the neurotoxic effects on PC12 cells by inhibiting reactive oxygen species accumulation, LDH release, and Ca2+ overload.[48] In the neurological injury induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, LBPs play a neuroprotective role by reducing the inflammatory response and the release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammatory vesicles, and upregulating autophagy in the organism.[49] In the effects of MPTP-induced behavioral deficits and abnormal α-synuclein aggregation in mice with Parkinson's disease, relatively short-term treatment with LBPs can upregulate the levels of oxidative stress factors (SOD2, CAT, GPX1) and PTEN/AKT/mTOR phosphorylation, thus serving as a potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease.[50] For cognitive impairment caused by reduced estrogen levels, oral LBP treatment may reduce neuroinflammation and hippocampal neuronal damage by the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, which may serve as a potential agent to prevent memory impairment caused by estrogen deficiency.[51] The connection between vision and the nervous system is close and involves multiple nerves in the formation, processing, and transmission of visual images in the eyes. LBPs can treat retina-alleviated ischemia-induced retinal dysfunction by enhancing the immunoreactivity of protein kinase Cα, attenuating the expression of the glial fibrillary acid protein, and reducing associated neuronal death and glial activation.[52] Acute and chronic hypertension in vivo models show that the neuroprotective effects of LBPs may promote blood-retinal barrier maintenance and revitalize neuronal cells by inhibiting neuronal degeneration after treatment and preservation of retinal Ganglion cell density and retinal function. And may modulate amyloid production and expression of late glycosylation end-product receptors and mediated retinal glial cell activity.[53],[54] The above studies indicate that LBPs can potentially preserve retinal neurons and prevent or reduce the progression of illnesses. In conclusion, LBPs are highly likely to be natural pharmaceutical agents in the adjuvant treatment of neurological disorders through their relevant mechanisms.

Immunomodulatory activity

Many studies show that LBPs modulate changes in immune system components. For example, they can regulate immune cells like lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and natural killer cells. T cells are lymphocytes produced from the thymus and play a crucial part in the development and modulation of the immune response to protein antigens in adapted immunity. LBPs maintain large numbers of T cells in external blood, drainage lymph nodes of tumors, and tumor tissues, and block the rise of regulatory T cells and serum TGF-1 and IL-10 production. Furthermore, they can encourage CD8+ T cell infiltration in tumor tissues while inhibiting the expansion of Tregs.[55] The most functional antigen presenting cells are dendritic cells (DCs) in the immune system. LBPs can stimulate DC phenotypic and functional maturation by raising the expressions of MHCII, CD80, and CD86 via the Notch or TLR4-Erk1/2-Blimp1 signaling pathways. This enhances the cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediated by DCs.[56],[57] The production of cytokines is a crucial process in the induction and regulation of an immune response. LBPs activate or stimulate immune cells to secrete cellular factors, which are directly involved in the pathological processes of the body. For instance, LBPs protect the body from cyclophosphamide damage by primarily increasing relevant immune cytokines, such as improving the interleukin (IL-2, IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor concentrations in serum with impaired reproductive systems in mice,[58] and preventing hepatotoxicity in mice.[59] Receptors for various plant polysaccharides exist on the surface of DCs and macrophages, some of which are receptors for the action of LBPs, suggesting that the immunomodulatory function of LBPs may be exerted through DCs and macrophages.

Antitumor activity

Current cancer treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, etc. These modes of treatment can have serious side effects and are resistant to drugs. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify safe and effective anti-cancer compounds from natural resources. As a natural product, LBPs have a bioactivity of tumor growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo. LBPs inhibit the growth of SGC-790 and Caco-2 cells by inhibiting the G0/G1 and S cell cycle stages[60],[61] and inhibit SMMC-7721 cells by increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentration.[30],[62] Furthermore, LBPs induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in addition to inhibiting HeLa cell growth and cell cycle arrest.[63] In addition, LBPs restrained the proliferation of BIU87 cells and HemECs by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway,[64],[65] and induced apoptosis in T47D and MCF-7 cells by activating the ERK signaling pathway.[66],[67] LBPs also induced apoptosis in A431 cells through autophagy.[68] Besides, LBPs can be used as adjuvant drugs to enhance drug effects or reduce adverse drug reactions. For example, In RCC cells, LBPs and interferon-a2b work together to synergistically reduce the expression of cyclinD1, c-My, and Bcl-2 and increase the manifestation of Bax. This means that they reduce Renca cell proliferation, slow down the cell cycle, and induce death.[69] LBPs also inhibit tumors through immunomodulatory effects. For example, LBPs can promote dendritic cell maturation through Notch signaling and increase the cytotoxicity of dendritic-cell-mediated T lymphocytes against colon cancer cells.[70] In glioma, LBPs also inhibit glioma growth by promoting improved immune function.[71] LBPs exhibit antitumor effects mainly through induction of apoptosis, blockade of cell cycle and related signaling pathways, and immunomodulation, thus exhibiting inhibitory activity against many types of cancer cells.

Other Bioactivities 

LBPs contribute to reducing diabetes complications. In mice with diabetic nephropathy brought on by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin, LBPs in the experimental group lowered blood glucose levels and improved insulin resistance and renal insufficiency by inhibiting NF-κB activation compared to controls.[72] LBPs also decreased diabetic cataracts by increasing Sirt1 and Bcl-2 proteins while decreasing cell death-related genes.[73] In a model of cardiac hypertrophy in diabetic rats, administration of LBPs inhibited calmodulin-1 expression and NF-κB activation and reduced reactive oxygen species.[74] In diabetic rat testicular cells, LBPs could regulate the expression of SIRT1/HIF-1α, inhibit apoptosis, and protect against diabetic spermatogenic function.[75] The above results suggest that LBPs act in the treatment of diabetic complications mainly through the inhibition of NF-B activation, inflammation, and apoptosis. The reduction in the activation of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-B is one potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory impact of LBPs. For example, LBPs inhibit TLR4 and NF-κB inflammatory sites, reduce the production of NO and cytokine, and improve behavioral scores in vitro and in vivo in mice with peritonitis.[76] For hepatoprotection, LBPs exert a protective effect by restraining the NLRP3/6 inflammasome pathway in a mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.[77] For ethanol and CCI4-induced liver injury or liver fibrosis, LBPs inhibit the TLRs4/NF-κB signaling pathway, apoptosis, and oxidative stress, down-regulate the levels of inflammatory factors,[78],[79],[80],[81] and restore intestinal flora.[82] Clinically, the hepatoprotective effect of LBPs was also studied in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study in vivo. LBPs were shown to be a potential probiotic with safety and efficacy in regulating the gut microbiota of persons with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,[83] promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in vitro, balancing intestinal microbial composition, and improving intestinal flora concentration and immunity in mice.[84]


In China, Lycium barbarum is a conventional herb that has been used for thousands of years to treat diseases and enhance the functions of the liver, kidneys, and lungs. Extraction methods such as aqueous, enzymatic, microwave, and ultrasonic extraction have various consequences on the yield and bioactivity of LBPs. About 90% of the carbohydrates in LBPs are highly branched polysaccharides. In addition to the main sugar chain structure, LBPs have other minimally representative α-(1→5)-ara and β-(1→4)-galp and various branch and end positions, which are the basis for the broad range of drug activity.

As the most important water-soluble components of traditional medicine, LBPs have extensive bioactivities, safety, low toxicity, and high efficiency. Due to the complex and irregular structure of LBPs and the different molecular weights obtained by other extraction and purification techniques, there are differences in identifying their monosaccharide composition and sugar chain linkage, for which their conformational effect relationship remains unclear. Therefore, future research shall be carried out at the molecular level to explain the advanced structure and related bioactivity by using a more plausible mechanism and to find the effective targets and mechanisms of their structural effects. LBPs with the roles in antioxidants, immunomodulation, and increasing resistance can be regarded as food and health products for further development. According to a few reports, the combination of LBPs with other drugs will enhance the bioactivity of drug efficacy, such as anti-tumor efficacy and hepatoprotective efficacy. LBPs can be used as an adjunct to the development of pharmaceutical products to treat diseases. With the development of a significant health industry, functional food and health products are the future development trend of LBPs, which is because LBPs are a medicinal food source with excellent research value. This review presents the extraction methods, purification, identification, bioactivities, and action mechanism of LBPs, and gives reference guidance and significance for future LBP research and applications in food and medicine.


Author Contributions:

Jinhua Q, Hangping Chen and Huaqing Lin conceived the idea; Jinhua Q, Hangping Chen and Huaqing Lin wrote the draft; Hongyuan Che and Wen Rui edited the manuscript; all authors read and approved the final manuscript.


Conflicts of Interest:

The author(s) declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (no.82074017; 81573607; 81202917) and The Special Fund for Science and Technology Development in 2017 Guangdong Province of South China (no. 2017A030311031).



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Kaijun Huang1, Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios1, Wanhua Yang2, Rajeev L. Balmiki3

Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Human Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line (Michigan Cancer Foundation‑7)

Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi, Sankaran Mirunalini

Impact of Age on the Biochemical Failure and Androgen Suppression after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer in Chilean Men

Nigel P. Murray1,2, Eduardo Reyes1,3, Nelson Orellana1, Cynthia Fuentealba1, Omar Jacob1

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: 35 Years of a Single Institution’s Experience

Rana I. Mahmood1,2, Mohammed Aldehaim1,3, Fazal Hussain4, Tusneem A. Elhassan4,
Zubeir A. Khan5, Muhammad A. Memon6

Metformin in Ovarian Cancer Therapy: A Discussion

Yeling Ouyang1, Xi Chen2, Chunyun Zhang1, Vichitra Bunyamanop1, Jianfeng Guo3

The Progress in Molecular Biomarkers of Gliomas

Jing Qi1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Correlation between Paclitaxel Tc > 0.05 and its Therapeutic Efficacy and Severe Toxicities in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Shuyao Zhang1*, Muyin Sun2*, Yun Yuan3*, Miaojun Wang4*, Yuqi She1*, Li Zhou5, Congzhu Li5, Chen Chen1, Shengqi Zhang4

Identifying Gaps and Relative Opportunities for Discovering Membrane Proteomic Biomarkers of Triple‑negative Breast Cancer as a Translational Priority

Bhooma Venkatraman

The Molecular Mechanism and Regulatory Pathways of Cancer Stem Cells

Zhen Wang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems and Three‑dimensional Cell Cultures in Cancer Treatments and Research

Wenjin Shi1, Ding Weng2,3, Wanting Niu2,3

Choline Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TRAIL in the Treatment of Colorectal Tumors and Overcomes TRAIL Resistance

Juan Carlos Lacal1, Ladislav Andera2

MicroRNA Regulating Metabolic Reprogramming in Tumor Cells: New Tumor Markers

Daniel Otero‑Albiol, Blanca Felipe‑Abrio

Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer: A Genome‑wide Perspective

José M. Santos‑Pereira1, Sandra Muñoz‑Galván2

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide+ Metabolism Biomarkers in Malignant Gliomas

Manuel P. Jiménez‑García, Eva M. Verdugo‑Sivianes, Antonio Lucena‑Cacace

Patient-derived Xenografts as Models for Personalized Medicine Research in Cancer

Marco Perez, Lola Navas, Amancio Carnero

Genome‑wide Transcriptome Analysis of Prostate Cancer Tissue Identified Overexpression of Specific Members of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus‑K Family

Behnam Sayanjali1,2

Clinical Utility of Interleukin‑18 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

Reecha A. Parikh, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Mahnaz M. Kazi, Nandita R. Ghosh

Current and Future Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced Soft‑tissue Sarcoma beyond Anthracyclines and Ifosfamide

Nadia Hindi1,2, Javier Martin‑Broto1,2

The Genomic Organization and Function of IRX1 in Tumorigenesis and Development

Pengxing Zhang1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Liang Wang3, Yingduan Cheng4, Yongsheng Zhang5, Yanyang Tu1,2

Stem Cell‑based Approach in Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer Management

Yi‑Zhou Jiang1, Demeng Chen2

Mutation Detection with a Liquid Biopsy 96 Mutation Assay in Cancer Patients and Healthy Donors

Aaron Yun Chen, Glenn D. Braunstein, Megan S. Anselmo, Jair A. Jaboni, Fernando Troy Viloria, Julie A. Neidich, Xiang Li, Anja Kammesheidt

The Application of Estrogen Receptor‑1 Mutations’ Detection through Circulating Tumor DNA in Breast Cancer

Binliang Liu, Yalan Yang, Zongbi Yi, Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma

Circulating MicroRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs: Liquid Biomarkers in Thoracic Cancers

Pablo Reclusa1, Anna Valentino1, Rafael Sirera1,2, Martin Frederik Dietrich3, Luis Estuardo Raez3, Christian Rolfo1

Exosomes Biology: Function and Clinical Implications in Lung Cancer

Martin Frederik Dietrich1, Christian Rolfo2, Pablo Reclusa2, Marco Giallombardo2, Anna Valentino2, Luis E. Raez1

Circulating Tumor DNA: A Potential Biomarker from Solid Tumors’ Monitor to Anticancer Therapies

Ting Chen1,2, Rongzhang He1,3, Xinglin Hu1,3,4, Weihao Luo1, Zheng Hu1,3, Jia Li1, Lili Duan1, Yali Xie1,2, Wenna Luo1,2, Tan Tan1,2, Di‑Xian Luo1,2

Novel Molecular Multilevel Targeted Antitumor Agents

Poonam Sonawane1, Young A. Choi1, Hetal Pandya2, Denise M. Herpai1, Izabela Fokt3,
Waldemar Priebe3, Waldemar Debinski1

Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Effects and Clinical Relevance

Pei Liang, Michael Gao Jr.

Stemness‑related Markers in Cancer

Wenxiu Zhao1, Yvonne Li2, Xun Zhang1

Autophagy Regulated by miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Progression and Resistance

Andrew Fesler1, Hua Liu1, Ning Wu1,2, Fei Liu3, Peixue Ling3, Jingfang Ju1,3

Gastric Metastases Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: A Brief Literature Review

Simona Gurzu1,2,3, Marius Alexandru Beleaua1, Laura Banias2, Ioan Jung1

Possibility of Specific Expression of the Protein Toxins at the Tumor Site with Tumor‑specialized Promoter

Liyuan Zhou1,2, Yujun Li1,2, Changchen Hu3, Binquan Wang1,2

SKI‑178: A Multitargeted Inhibitor of Sphingosine Kinase and Microtubule Dynamics Demonstrating Therapeutic Efficacy in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Models

Jeremy A. Hengst1,2, Taryn E. Dick1,2, Arati Sharma1, Kenichiro Doi3, Shailaja Hegde4, Su‑Fern Tan5, Laura M. Geffert1,2, Todd E. Fox5, Arun K. Sharma1, Dhimant Desai1, Shantu Amin1, Mark Kester5, Thomas P. Loughran5, Robert F. Paulson4, David F. Claxton6, Hong‑Gang Wang3, Jong K. Yun1,2

A T‑cell Engager‑armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to Target the Tumor Stroma

Feng Yu1, Bangxing Hong1, Xiao‑Tong Song1,2,3

Real‑world Experience with Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration‑resistant Prostate Cancer

Yasar Ahmed1, Nemer Osman1, Rizwan Sheikh2, Sarah Picardo1, Geoffrey Watson1

Combination of Interleukin‑11Rα Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‑cells and Programmed Death‑1 Blockade as an Approach to Targeting Osteosarcoma Cells In vitro

Hatel Rana Moonat, Gangxiong Huang, Pooja Dhupkar, Keri Schadler, Nancy Gordon,
Eugenie Kleinerman

Efficacy and Safety of Paclitaxel‑based Therapy and Nonpaclitaxel‑based Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

Tongwei Wu, Xiao Yang, Min An, Wenqin Luo, Danxian Cai, Xiaolong Qi

Motion Estimation of the Liver Based on Deformable Image Registration: A Comparison Between Four‑Dimensional‑Computed Tomography and Four‑Dimensional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Xiao Liang1, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2, Yilin Liu1, Brian Czito2, Manisha Palta2, Mustafa Bashir3, Jing Cai1,2

A Feasibility Study of Applying Thermal Imaging to Assist Quality Assurance of High‑Dose Rate Brachytherapy

Xiaofeng Zhu1, Yu Lei1, Dandan Zheng1, Sicong Li1, Vivek Verma1, Mutian Zhang1, Qinghui Zhang1, Xiaoli Tang2, Jun Lian2, Sha X. Chang2, Haijun Song3, Sumin Zhou1, Charles A. Enke1

Role of Exosome microRNA in Breast Cancer

Wang Qu, Ma Fei, Binghe Xu

Recent Progress in Technological Improvement and Biomedical Applications of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas System

Yanlan Li1,2*, Zheng Hu1*, Yufang Yin3, Rongzhang He1, Jian Hu1, Weihao Luo1, Jia Li1, Gebo Wen2, Li Xiao1, Kai Li1, Duanfang Liao4, Di-Xian Luo1,5

The Significance of Nuclear Factor‑Kappa B Signaling Pathway in Glioma: A Review

Xiaoshan Xu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1

Markerless Four‑Dimensional‑Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection‑Phase Sorting Using Prior Knowledge and Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

Lei Zhang1,2, Yawei Zhang2, You Zhang1,2,3, Wendy B. Harris1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,4, Jing Cai1,4,5, Lei Ren1,2

The Producing Capabilities of Interferon‑g and Interleukin‑10 of Spleen Cells in Primary and Metastasized Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells-implanted Mice

Yasuka Azuma1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Toshihiro Inagaki4, Eiichi Chihara2, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Nobuo Kondoh1

“Eating” Cancer Cells by Blocking CD47 Signaling: Cancer Therapy by Targeting the Innate Immune Checkpoint

Yi‑Rong Xiang, Li Liu

Glycosylation is Involved in Malignant Properties of Cancer Cells

Kazunori Hamamura1, Koichi Furukawa2

Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Era of Precision Medicine

Qing‑Hao Zhu1*, Qing‑Chao Shang1*, Zhi‑Hao Hu1*, Yuan Liu2, Bo Li1, Bo Wang1, An‑Hui Wang1

I‑Kappa‑B Kinase‑epsilon Activates Nuclear Factor‑kappa B and STAT5B and Supports Glioblastoma Growth but Amlexanox Shows Little Therapeutic Potential in These Tumors

Nadège Dubois1, Sharon Berendsen2, Aurélie Henry1,2, Minh Nguyen1, Vincent Bours1,
Pierre Alain Robe1,2

Suppressive Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Interferon‑g‑Producing Capability of Spleen Cells was Specifically Enhanced through Humoral Mediator(s) from Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sq‑1979 Cells In Vitro

Toshihiro Inagaki1,2, Masako Mizuno‑Kamiya3, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawaki1, Eiichi Chihara4, Yasunori Muramatsu5, Shinichiro Sumitomo5, Nobuo Kondoh1

An Interplay Between MicroRNA and SOX4 in the Regulation of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Progression

Anjali Geethadevi1, Ansul Sharma2, Manish Kumar Sharma3, Deepak Parashar1

MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Prostate Cancer of African‑American and European‑American Men

Ernest K. Amankwah

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Screening Anticancer Agents

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Taoli Sun3, Shengping Zhang1, Hongyan Zhang1

Panobinostat and Its Combination with 3‑Deazaneplanocin‑A Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit In vitro Tumorigenesis and Metastasis in GOS‑3 Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Javier de la Rosa*, Alejandro Urdiciain*, Juan Jesús Aznar‑Morales, Bárbara Meléndez1,
Juan A. Rey2, Miguel A. Idoate3, Javier S. Castresana

Cancer Stem‑Like Cells Have Cisplatin Resistance and miR‑93 Regulate p21 Expression in Breast Cancer

Akiko Sasaki1, Yuko Tsunoda2, Kanji Furuya3, Hideto Oyamada1, Mayumi Tsuji1, Yuko Udaka1, Masahiro Hosonuma1, Haruna Shirako1, Nana Ichimura1, Yuji Kiuchi1

The Contribution of Hexokinase 2 in Glioma

Hui Liu1, Hongwei Yang2, Xin Wang3, Yanyang Tu1

The Mechanism of BMI1 in Regulating Cancer Stemness Maintenance, Metastasis, Chemo‑ and Radiation Resistance

Xiaoshan Xu, Zhen Wang, Nan Liu, Pengxing Zhang, Hui Liu, Jing Qi, Yanyang Tu

A Multisource Adaptive Magnetic Resonance Image Fusion Technique for Versatile Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lei Zhang1,2, Fang‑Fang Yin1,2,3, Brittany Moore1,2, Silu Han1,2, Jing Cai1,2,4

Senescence and Cancer

Sulin Zeng1,2, Wen H. Shen2, Li Liu1

The “Wild”‑type Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Heterogeneity on Molecule Characteristics and Clinical Features

Yanhua Mou1, Quan Wang1, Bin Li1,2

Retreatment with Cabazitaxel in a Long‑Surviving Patient with Castration‑Resistant Prostate Cancer and Visceral Metastasis

Raquel Luque Caro, Carmen Sánchez Toro, Lucia Ochoa Vallejo

Therapy‑Induced Histopathological Changes in Breast Cancers: The Changing Role of Pathology in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Shazima Sheereen1, Flora D. Lobo1, Waseemoddin Patel2, Shamama Sheereen3,
Abhishek Singh Nayyar4, Mubeen Khan5

Glioma Research in the Era of Medical Big Data

Feiyifan Wang1, Christopher J. Pirozzi2, Xuejun Li1

Transarterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Adenomas: Case Report and Literature Review

Jian‑Hong Zhong1,2, Kang Chen1, Bhavesh K. Ahir3, Qi Huang4, Ye Wu4, Cheng‑Cheng Liao1, Rong‑Rong Jia1, Bang‑De Xiang1,2, Le‑Qun Li1,2

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: Biology, Role in Cancer, and Novel Drug Target

Antonio Lucena‑Cacace1,2,3, Amancio Carnero1,2

Enhanced Anticancer Effect by Combination of Proteoglucan and Vitamin K3 on Bladder Cancer Cells

Michael Zhang, Kelvin Zheng, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno

Molecular Insights Turning Game for Management of Ependymoma: A Review of Literature

Ajay Sasidharan, Rahul Krishnatry

IDH Gene Mutation in Glioma

Leping Liu1, Xuejun Li1,2

Challenges and Advances in the Management of Pediatric Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Report and Literature Review

Gerard Cathal Millen1, Karen A. Manias1,2, Andrew C. Peet1,2, Jenny K. Adamski1

Assessing the Feasibility of Using Deformable Registration for Onboard Multimodality‑Based Target Localization in Radiation Therapy

Ge Ren1,2,3, Yawei Zhang1,2, Lei Ren1,2

Research Advancement in the Tumor Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Qing Du1, Xiaoying Ji2, Guangjing Yin3, Dengxian Wei3, Pengcheng Lin1, Yongchang Lu1,
Yugui Li3, Qiaohong Yang4, Shizhu Liu5, Jinliang Ku5, Wenbin Guan6, Yuanzhi Lu7

Novel Insights into the Role of Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Lei Zhang1, Guoyu Qiu2, Xiaohui Xu2, Yufeng Zhou3, Ruiming Chang4

Central Odontogenic Fibroma with Unusual Presenting Symptoms

Aanchal Tandon, Bharadwaj Bordoloi, Safia Siddiqui, Rohit Jaiswal

The Prognostic Role of Lactate in Patients Who Achieved Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Dongni Ren1, Xin Wang2, Yanyang Tu1,2

Inhibitory Effect of Hyaluronidase‑4 in a Rat Spinal Cord Hemisection Model

Xipeng Wang1,2, Mitsuteru Yokoyama2, Ping Liu3

Research and Development of Anticancer Agents under the Guidance of Biomarkers

Xiaohui Xu1, Guoyu Qiu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Ruling Jia1, Bo Zhao1

Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Mansoor C. Abdulla

Phosphorylation of BRCA1‑Associated Protein 1 as an Important Mechanism in the Evasion of Tumorigenesis: A Perspective

Guru Prasad Sharma1, Anjali Geethadevi2, Jyotsna Mishra3, G. Anupa4, Kapilesh Jadhav5,
K. S. Vikramdeo6, Deepak Parashar2

Progress in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of Biliary‑Pancreatic System

Ge Zengzheng1, Huang-Sheng Ling2, Ming-Feng Li2, Xu Xiaoyan1, Yao Kai1, Xu Tongzhen3,
Ge Zengyu4, Li Zhou5

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to Study the Biological Activity of Anticancer Agent

Guoyu Qiu1, Xiaohui Xu1, Lupeng Ji2, Ruiping Ma3, Zilong Dang4, Huan Yang5

Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Genes in Malignant Breast Tumors

Steven Lehrer1, Peter H. Rheinstein2

OSMCC: An Online Survival Analysis Tool for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai1, Qiang Wang1, Xiaoxiao Sun1, Yifang Dang1, JiaJia Lv1,2, Junfang Xin1, Wan Zhu3, Yongqiang Li1, Xinying Ji1, Xiangqian Guo1

Protective Activity of Selenium against 5‑Fluorouracil‑Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Beauty Tokoni Amgbare

Advances on the Components of Fibrinolytic System in Malignant Tumors

Zengzheng Ge1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Zengyu Ge2, Shaopeng Zhou3, Xiulin Li1, Kai Yao1, Lan Deng4

A Patient with Persistent Foot Swelling after Ankle Sprain: B‑Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mimicking Soft‑tissue Sarcoma

Crystal R. Montgomery‑Goecker1, Andrew A. Martin2, Charles F. Timmons3, Dinesh Rakheja3, Veena Rajaram3, Hung S. Luu3

Coenzyme Q10 and Resveratrol Abrogate Paclitaxel‑Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Elias Adikwu, Nelson Clemente Ebinyo, Loritta Wasini Harris

Progress in Clinical Follow‑up Study of Dendritic Cells Combined with Cytokine‑Induced Killer for Stomach Cancer

Ling Wang1,2, Run Wan1,2, Cong Chen1,2, Ruiliang Su1,2, Yumin Li1,2

Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy as the Initial Manifestation in Carcinoma of Cervix

Priyanka Priyaarshini1, Tapan Kumar Sahoo2

ABO Typing Error Resolution and Transfusion Support in a Case of an Acute Leukemia Patient Showing Loss of Antigen Expression

Debasish Mishra1, Gopal Krushna Ray1, Smita Mahapatra2, Pankaj Parida2

Protein Disulfide Isomerase A3: A Potential Regulatory Factor of Colon Epithelial Cells

Yang Li1, Zhenfan Huang2, Haiping Jiang3

Clinicopathological Association of p16 and its Impact on Outcome of Chemoradiation in Head‑and‑Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Patients in North‑East India

Srigopal Mohanty1, Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi2, Nithin Raj Daniel3, Dulasi Raman Ponna4,
Ph. Madhubala Devi5, Laishram Jaichand Singh2

Potential Inhibitor for 2019‑Novel Coronaviruses in Drug Development

Xiaohui Xu1, Zilong Dang2, Lei Zhang3, Lingxue Zhuang4, Wutang Jing5, Lupeng Ji6, Guoyu Qiu1

Best‑Match Blood Transfusion in Pediatric Patients with Mixed Autoantibodies

Debasish Mishra1, Dibyajyoti Sahoo1, Smita Mahapatra2, Ashutosh Panigrahi3

Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Pheochromocytoma

Nadeema Rafiq1, Tauseef Nabi2, Sajad Ahmad Dar3, Shahnawaz Rasool4

Comparison of Histopathological Grading and Staging of Breast Cancer with p53‑Positive and Transforming Growth Factor‑Beta Receptor 2‑Negative Immunohistochemical Marker Expression Cases

Palash Kumar Mandal1, Anindya Adhikari2, Subir Biswas3, Amita Giri4, Arnab Gupta5,
Arindam Bhattacharya6

Chemical Compositions and Antiproliferative Effect of Essential Oil of Asafoetida on MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line and Female Wistar Rats

Seyyed Majid Bagheri1,2, Davood Javidmehr3, Mohammad Ghaffari1, Ehsan Ghoderti‑Shatori4

Cyclooxygenase‑2 Contributes to Mutant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting an Immunosuppressive Environment

Mun Kyoung Kim1, Aidin Iravani2, Matthew K. Topham2,3

Potential role of CircMET as A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Yan Liu1,2,3,4#, Chen Cui1,2,3,4#, Jidong Liu1,2,3,4, Peng Lin1,2,3,4,Kai Liang1,2,3,4, Peng Su5, Xinguo Hou1,2,3,4, Chuan Wang1,2,3,4, Jinbo Liu1,2,3,4, Bo Chen6, Hong Lai1,2,3,4, Yujing Sun1,2,3,4* and Li Chen 1,2,3,4*

Cuproptosis-related Genes in Glioblastoma as Potential Therapeutic Targets

Zhiyu Xia1,2, Haotian Tian1, Lei Shu1,2, Guozhang Tang3, Zhenyu Han4, Yangchun Hu1*, Xingliang Dai1*

Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments by Porous Inorganic Nanocarriers

Jianfeng Xu1,2, Hanwen Zhang1,2, Xiaohui Song1,2, Yangong Zheng3, Qingning Li1,2,4*

Delayed (20 Years) post-surgical Esophageal Metastasis of Breast Cancer - A Case Report

Bowen Hu1#, Lingyu Du2#, Hongya Xie1, Jun Ma1, Yong Yang1*, Jie Tan2*

Subtyping of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Its Clinical Meaning

Umair Ali Khan Saddozai, Zhendong Lu, Fengling Wang, Muhammad Usman Akbar, Saadullah Khattak, Muhammad Badar, Nazeer Hussain Khan, Longxiang Xie, Yongqiang Li, Xinying Ji, Xiangqian Guo

Construction of Glioma Prognosis Model and Exploration of Related Regulatory Mechanism of Model Gene

Suxia Hu, Abdusemer Reyimu, Wubi Zhou, Xiang Wang, Ying Zheng, Xia Chen, Weiqiang Li, Jingjing Dai

ESRP2 as a Non-independent Potential Biomarker-Current Progress in Tumors

Yuting Chen, Yuzhen Rao, Zhiyu Zeng, Jiajie Luo, Chengkuan Zhao, Shuyao Zhang

Resection of Bladder Tumors at the Ureteral Orifice Using a Hook Plasma Electrode: A Case Report

Jun Li, Ziyong Wang, Qilin Wang

The Role of IL-22 in the Prevention of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Liver Injury

Xingli Qi1,2, Huaqing Lin2,3, Wen Rui2,3,4,5 and Hongyuan Chen1,2,3

RBM15 and YTHDF3 as Positive Prognostic Predictors in ESCC: A Bioinformatic Analysis Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)

Yulou Luo1, Lan Chen2, Ximing Qu3, Na Yi3, Jihua Ran4, Yan Chen3,5*

Mining and Analysis of Adverse Drug Reaction Signals Induced by Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Based on the FAERS Database

Xiumin Zhang1,2#, Xinyue Lin1,3#, Siman Su1,3#, Wei He3, Yuying Huang4, Chengkuan Zhao3, Xiaoshan Chen3, Jialin Zhong3, Chong Liu3, Wang Chen3, Chengcheng Xu3, Ping Yang5, Man Zhang5, Yanli Lei5*, Shuyao Zhang1,3*

Advancements in Immunotherapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer

Min Jiang1#, Rui Zheng1#, Ling Shao1, Ning Yao2, Zhengmao Lu1*

Tumor Regression after COVID-19 Infection in Metastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: A Case Report

Qiaoxin Lin1, Bin Liang1, Yangyang Li2, Ling Tian3*, Dianna Gu1*

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